Mechanics of Solder Alloy Interconnects

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, Jan 31, 1994 - Computers - 418 pages
The Mechanics of Solder Alloy Interconnects is a resource to be used in developing a solder joint reliability assessment. Each chapter is written to be used as a stand-alone resource for a particular aspect of materials and modeling issues. With this gained understanding, the reader in search of a solution to a solder joint reliability problem knows where in the materials and modeling communities to go for the appropriate answer.
 

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Contents

Introduction The Mechanics of Solder Alloy Interconnects
1
12 PREVIEW OF CHAPTERS
5
Microstructural Influences on the Mechanical Properties of Solder
7
22 SOLDER MICROSTRUCTURES
8
221 Eutectic Microstructures
9
222 OffEutectic Microstructures
12
223 Precipitated Microstructures
15
225 Intermetallics within the Bulk
16
Life Prediction and Accelerated Testing
199
62 LIFE PREDICTION
200
621 Determination of the Duty Cycle
201
623 Determination of the Strains or Stresses Developed in a Solder Joint
205
63 LIFE PREDICTION APPROACHES
207
641 Influence of the Definition of Failure
211
642 Test Temperature vs Thermal Cycle Range
219
643 Influence of the Cycle Frequency Ramp Rate and Hold Time
222

226 Changes in the Solder through Intermetallic Formation
21
232 Fatigue
28
233 Deformation and Fracture
35
24 CONCLUSION
39
25 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
40
Interfaces and Intermetallics
42
32 INTERMETALLICS IN THE SOLDER JOINT
43
322 CopperTin Intermetallics
44
323 Other Intermetallics
46
324 Gold Intermetallics
49
325 Intermetallic Growth
52
326 Kinetics of Intermetallic Growth
54
327 Physical Properties of Intermetallics
60
33 EFFECT OF INTERMETALLICS ON THE INTEGRITY OF SOLDER JOINTS
61
332 Fatigue Failures of SoldersBulk
62
334 Fracture of Hard SoldersThrough Intermetailic
63
Failure Through the Intermetallic
65
34 RECENT ADVANCES IN MICROSTRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF INTERMETALLICS
66
342 Activation Energy and Composite Solders
74
Constitutive Models
87
411 Organization of the Chapter
92
422 Anelastic Viscosity Parameter and Characteristic Relaxation Time Based on Grain Boundary Sliding
97
423 Microplasticity
102
424 Creep Plasticity
104
425 Experiments to Examine Constitutive Behavior and Measure Constitutive Parameters
114
Experiment Phenomenology and Microscopic Theory
120
427Application of the Constitutive Models
135
43 THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF CONSTITUTIVE MODELLING
142
432 Application to the Mechanics of Solder Joints
146
433 Numerical Implementation
149
434 Example Calculation
150
435 Conclusions
153
Prediction of Solder Joint Geometry
158
52 OBJECTIVES
159
531 Reflow Soldering
160
532 Wave Soldering
162
54 SURFACE TENSION THEORY
164
542 Problem Formulations
167
55 MODELS FOR PREDICTING SOLDER JOINT GEOMETRY
176
551 TwoDimensional Models
177
552 Axisymmetric Models
182
553 General ThreeDimensional Models
188
56 FUTURE RESEARCH NEEDS
194
57 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
195
65 INTEGRATED MATRIX CREEP STRAIN APPROACH
256
66 ENERGY APPROACHES FOR FATIGUE LIFE PREDICTION
259
67 ENGELMAIER RELIABILITY MODEL
265
68 CRACK PROPAGATION APPROACHES
274
69 INFLUENCE OF COMPOSITION AND MICROSTRUCTURE
285
610 ISOTHERMAL THERMAL AND THERMOMECHANICAL FATIGUE
294
6101 Accelerated Life Testing
298
6102 Isothermal Mechanical Acceleration Factors
299
Thermomechanical Fatigue Tests
304
611 CONCLUSION
305
Thermomechanical Modeling of Solder JointsNumerical Considerations
314
72 PURPOSE OF NUMERICAL MODELING
316
73 BOUNDARY VALUE REPRESENTATIONS OF PHYSICAL PROBLEMS
317
731 Constitutive Relations
320
732 Boundary Conditions
326
733 Initial Conditions
327
735 Finite Element Assumptions
329
74 CONCLUSIONS
330
ApplicationsThroughHole
336
82 MODELING CONSIDERATIONS
338
822 Materials and Material Response
340
823 Loading and Initial Conditions
341
824 Miscellaneous Assumptions
344
83 EXAMPLES
345
832 ThroughHole Solder Interconnection
352
84 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
358
Surface Mount Solder Joints Under Thermal Mechanical and Vibration Conditions
361
92 FINE PITCH TSOP SOLDER JOINTS UNDER THERMAL CONDITIONS
363
922 Test SetUp and Boundary Conditions
367
923 Statistical Analysis of Test Results
368
924 Failure Analysis of TSOP Solder Joints
374
925 Typel and Typell TSOP Solder Joints
376
93 FINE PITCH LARGE QFP SOLDER JOINTS UNDER BENDING AND TWISTING CONDITIONS
385
932 Bending Test of the QFP Assembly
388
933 Twisting Test of the QFP Assembly
391
94 SURFACE MOUNT CONNECTOR SOLDER JOINTS UNDER VIBRATION CONDITIONS
396
942 Solder Joint Cross Sections
402
943 InPlane Vibration Test of the Connector Assemblies
406
944 OutofPlane Vibration Test of the Connector Assemblies
408
95 CONCLUSION
410
96 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
412
Index
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