Menominee Drums: Tribal Termination and Restoration, 1954-1974
In 1961, the U.S. government terminated the Menominee Indians’ federal status as a recognized tribe, including rights to a self-governed reservation. The Menominees were not the only tribe subject to this injustice; the government’s action was part of its larger policy of termination, which aimed to assimilate all Native Americans into larger American society. For the Menominees, as well as for other tribes, the result was devastating; in addition to their loss of land, Native peoples lost their livelihoods, assets, and very identities.
In Menominee Drums, Nicholas C. Peroff explains how termination evolved and how it affected the Menominees. He also tells the astounding story of how the termination was reversed. Through an organized campaign called DRUMS, the tribe was able to regain its status of federal recognition.
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White America Tries to Assimilate the Indian
The Menominee Governing Elite
The Menominee Termination Act of 1954
The Implementation of Menominee Termination
Termination and Policy Performance
Impacts of the Menominee Termination Act