Mesopotamian Protective Spirits: The Ritual Texts
Wiggerman's study of Mesopotamian monsters bridges the gap between text and image. Wooden and clay figures of monstrous spirits such as Hairy-One (lahmu), Bison-Bull (kusarikku), and Furious-Snake (mushussu) stand guard at the entrances to buildings to protect the inhavitants from demonic intruders. Deriving his information from the ritual texts that describe the production and installation of these figures, the author identifies the monsters of the texts with objects from the archaeological record and presents a detailed discussion of the identities and histories of a variety of Mesopotamian monsters.
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Dia sibta mutant sutuqu to make diudisease
A Manuscript and comparison with text I
B Title and purpose inventory of figures
TEXT III 105118
The utukku Iemnutu incantation Gurney AAA 22 76ff
TEXT IV 119130
Akkadian AnOr 52 anthropomorphic Anzu apkallu apotropaic appears attested banduddu basmu BiOr bird-apkallu bison blt meseri Borger bucket clad clay collated cornel date palm denotes DINGIR dogs e'ru enemy Enki Enlil evil exorcist figures fish-apkallu girtablullu GISIMMAR gods Green Iraq 45 Gudea Gurney I/iv identified IM.BABBAR incantation incipit inscription Iraq kulullu kusarikku lab-su lahmu Lamastu Lamastu amulets Lambert Landsberger Latarak Lugal Lugalgirra Lulal mace Marduk Meslamtaea monsters mushussu mutanu myth mythology naked hero Narudda NAss Nergal Ninazu Ninurta NU.MES OrNS outer gate palace reliefs prescribed quoted Reade BaM Restored after text Rittig Kleinplastik ritual I/II SbTU seals Sebettu sep lemutti statue of tamarisk suhurmdsu Sumerian sut kakkl tablet tamarisk text I/II text II Obv tillu UAVA ugallu umu-apkallu Ur III uridimmu urigallu urmahlullu Uruk Uruk ex utukku Wiggermann ZABAR Zimmern