Metacognition: Process, Function, and Use
Springer Science & Business Media, Aug 31, 2002 - Psychology - 281 pages
New Theory and Data on Metacognitive Monitoring and Control in Different Contexts and by Different Individuals Thomas O. Nelson University ofMary/and. USA This book, divided into several sections (each containing several chapters), is timely in reporting new theory and data that help refine what is already known about metacognition (defined as people's cognitions about their own cognitions). New data are reported about metacognition during learning (especially judgments of learning that occur soon after studying new items) not only in traditionally examined people such as college students but also in children and in Alzheimer patients. Data are also reported about metacognitive monitoring during the reading of text, not only in college students but also in children. The above situations focus on the acquisition of new items from lists or from texts. However, the book also includes a chapter reporting dataaboutmetacognitionduring problem solving. Besides the chapters on monitoring information in anticipation of future performance (sometimes called prospective monitoring), a chapter is included that offers data about the metacognitive monitoring ofthe retrieval of information from memory, where the emphasis is on the accuracy of retrospective confidence judgments not only in adults but also in children. This topic is ofwidespread interest both in traditional domains ofcognitive psychology and in applications to domains such as forensics, where eyewitness reports are crucial tojudicial decisions. The above topics pertain to aspects ofmetacognition involving the monitoringof one's own cognitions.
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Metacognitive Judgments and their Accuracy
The Systemic Nature of Metacognitive Experiences
Metacognitive Processes at Encoding
Comparing Processingbased Stimulusbased and Subjectbased Factors in Metacognition
WHAT IS METACOGNITION IN RELATION TO COGNITION?
Metacognition in Strategy Selection
Feeling of Familiarity
Familiarity and the Retrieval of Memory Traces
Metacognition Triggered by a Social Aspect of Expertise
WHAT CAN NONEXPERTS IN METACOGNITION OFFER TO METACOGNITIVE RESEARCH? What can metacognition offer to them?
The Metacognitive Implications of the Implicit Explicit Distinction
How Implicit is Implicitly Acquired Knowledge
Calibration of Confidence among Eyewitnesses and Earwitnesses
Using state of Awareness Judgements to Improve Eyewitness ConfidenceAccuracy Judgements
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Alzheimer's disease analysis ANOVA answer artificial grammar learning Asher Koriat Blaise Pascal calibration central detail chapter cognitive cognitive psychology detail CA correlation developmental Dienes Dunlosky effect Efklides encoding episodic memory example experimental explicit eyewitness eyewitness identification factors feeling of confidence feeling of difficulty feeling of familiarity feeling of knowing function Grade grammaticality identification implicit knowledge implicit learning implicit memory interaction Kelemen Koriat mean memory performance metacognitive accuracy metacognitive activity metacognitive experiences metacognitive judgments metacognitive knowledge metacognitive processes metaknowledge metamemory metatextual knowledge mnemonic cues monitoring and control Nelson objective task order thought participants perceptual fluency peripheral details person phase position of expertise predictions presented problem solving procedural knowledge Psychology questions recall recognition judgments Reder relation remember repetition representation response retrieval role self-regulated learning solution correctness specific stimuli strategy selection subjects suggest task text comprehension theory word