Metaphor, Metonymy, and Experientialist Philosophy: Challenging Cognitive Semantics

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Walter de Gruyter, 2005 - Language Arts & Disciplines - 286 pages
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The present book provides a detailed criticism of experientialist semantics, focusing both on philosophical issues connected with experientialism and on cognitive approaches to metaphor and metonymy. Particular emphasis is placed on the works of George Lakoff and Mark Johnson, but other cognitivists are also taken into consideration.

Verena Haser proposes a new approach to the distinction between metaphor and metonymy, which contrasts with familiar cognitivist models, but also builds on some insights gained in cognitivist research. She also offers an account of metaphorical transfer which dispenses with the notion of conceptual metaphors in the sense of Lakoff and Johnson. She argues that conceptual metaphors are not a useful construct for explaining metaphorical transfer, and that the clustering of metaphorical expressions is better accounted for in terms of family resemblances between metaphorical expressions. Another major goal of this work is a reassessment of the relationship between experientialism and traditional Western philosophy (often subsumed under the vague term "objectivism").

This book contrasts with most other critical approaches to experientialism by providing close readings of key passages from the works of Lakoff and Johnson, which enables the author to pinpoint theory-internal inconsistencies and other shortcomings not noted in previous publications.

This book will be relevant to students and scholars interested in semantics and cognitive linguistics, and also in psychology and philosophy of language.

 

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Contents

Introductory remarks
1
12 Experientialism and the study of metaphor
4
13 The dawning of a new age?
7
14 Organization of the individual chapters
9
Metaphor and metonymy in cognitive linguistics
13
22 Criteria for distinguishing metaphor and metonymy
15
222 Metonymy as a standsfor relationship
17
223 Similarity
19
54 Basiclevel categories and direct understanding
133
55 The foundation of cognitive semantics
136
56 Summary
139
LakoffJohnsons theory of metaphor
143
62 LakoffJohnson on metaphorical concepts
145
63 LakoffJohnson on metaphorical structuring
148
64 Metaphorical definitions
151
65 Understanding metaphorical concepts
152

224 Contiguity
22
2242 Contiguity as a relation within domains
26
2243 Contiguity as a framebased relation
31
23 General problems with cognitivist analyses
36
24 An alternative approach
41
25 Summary
51
ARGUMENT IS WAR and Cognitive Linguistics
53
32 ARGUMENT IS WAR in LakoffJohnsons works
54
321 Case study 1
59
322 Case study 2
62
323 Relationship to earlier theories
68
33 Summary
71
Early cognitivists and the myth of objectivism
73
42 Preechoes of LakoffJohnsons theory of metaphor
74
43 Objectivism objectivity and myths
77
44 LakoffJohnsons theory of truth
81
A close reading
84
A close reading
86
198
90
199
97
46 LakoffJohnson 1999 on the Fregean tradition
99
47 Experientialist philosophy by other cognitivists
110
48 Summary
121
Cognitive semantics The theoretical framework
123
52 Family resemblances and mental images
126
53 Mental images and experientialist semantics
128
66 LakoffJohnson on the experiential basis of metaphors
155
662 Ontological metaphors as experiential basis
157
663 The experiential basis of ontological metaphors
160
67 A preliminary glance at LakoffJohnson 1999
161
68 Summary
168
Metaphorical expressions metaphorical concepts
173
72 The level of generality of source domains
177
73 Alternative groupings of metaphorical expressions
179
Further examples and implications
181
742 Defend
182
743 Demolish
185
744 Shoot
186
75 Ordinary vs metaphorical concepts
189
76 Family resemblances and metaphorical concepts
191
77 Summary
192
The conceptual metaphor view Recent developments and criticism
197
83 On primary metaphors
208
832 Primary metaphors complex metaphors and figurative expressions
216
84 Family resemblances primary metaphors and complex metaphors
224
85 Summary
237
Conclusion
239
ARGUMENT IS WAR in Lakoff 1987
249
Notes
255
Bibliography
263
Index
283
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About the author (2005)

Verena Haser is Assistant Professor at Albert-Ludwigs University Freiburg, Germany.

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