Metaphors and Action Schemes: Some Themes in Intellectual History
All our abstract ideas are based on metaphors and action schemes. Jean Piaget did voluminous research on how thought develops in children through assimilation of action schemes. George Lakoff and Mark Johnson have done pioneering work on metaphors and action schemes in everyday thinking. This book builds on those foundations, looking at the role played by metaphors and action schemes in the history of ideas. The author begins his argument by taking a critical look at the philosophy of metaphor from Aristotle to the present. While he sees metaphor as simply conceiving one thing in terms of another, he points out that this is an inexhaustible process, because the context in which the process takes place is always changing. Change opens up new possibilities of similarity. Thus, the metaphor is an open door into a space of infinite possibilities.
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Metaphor and Intellectual History
Action Schemes and Topological Transformations
The Ancient World
The Medieval Period
The Enlightenment to 1900
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abstract action schemes analysis ancient argument Aristotle arts becomes behavior body Breath causality century classical complex conceived concept construed cosmic order culture defined depersonalized deployed discursive thought divine domain dream dynamics Einstein elements epistemology equations experience fifth element force geometry George Lakoff Greek Hans Vaihinger Harry Elmer Barnes human Ibid ideal ideas image schema indwelling agency intellectual history isomorphic knowledge Lakoff logic manipulation Mark Johnson mathematical meaning Mechanism metaphor medieval mental meta metaphor deployment metaphorand mind Mirror metaphor move myths nature negation Neoplatonism notion objects One/Many operations Organism metaphor ousia Parent particles Pattern metaphor perception Philosophy phor physical Plato Platonic ideals Plotinus primitive principle properties prototype quantum theory reality reason relations Renaissance rhetorical root metaphors schemata sense simple social space spatial spirit structure symbolic things tion topological space topological transformations trans underlying understanding University Press visual Western words York
Page 22 - This power, first put in action by the will and understanding, and retained under their irremissive, though gentle and unnoticed, control (laxis effertur habenis} reveals itself in the balance or reconciliation of opposite or discordant qualities...
Page 22 - ... opposite or discordant qualities: of sameness, with difference; of the general, with the concrete; the idea, with the image; the individual, with the representative; the sense of novelty and freshness, with old and familiar objects; a more than usual state of emotion, with more than usual order...