Meteorological Measurement Systems

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Oxford University Press, Feb 8, 2001 - Science - 304 pages
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This book treats instrumentation used in meteorological surface systems, both on the synoptic scale and the mesoscale, and the instrumentation used in upper air soundings. The text includes material on first- and second-order differential equations as applied to instrument dynamic performance, and required solutions are developed. Sensor physics are emphasized in order to explain how sensors work and to explore the strengths and weaknesses of each design type. The book is organized according to sensor type and function (temperature, humidity, and wind sensors, for example), though several unifying themes are developed for each sensor. Functional diagrams are used to portray sensors as a set of logical functions, and static sensitivity is derived from a sensor's transfer equation, focusing attention on sensor physics and on ways in which particular designs might be improved. Sensor performance specifications are explored, helping to compare various instruments and to tell users what to expect as a reasonable level of performance. Finally, the text examines the critical area of environmental exposure of instruments. In a well-designed, properly installed, and well-maintained meteorological measurement system, exposure problems are usually the largest source of error, making this chapter one of the most useful sections of the book.
 

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Contents

Overview
1
111 Performance Characteristics
2
113 Sources of Error
4
12 Standards
6
124 Procedural
7
13 System Integration
8
133 Power Source
10
14 Human Aspects of Measurement
11
Anemometry
129
711 Wind Force
130
712 Heat Dissipation
140
713 Speed of Sound
141
72 Calibration
144
QUESTIONS
145
BIBLIOGRAPHY
147
Dynamic Performance Characteristics Part 2
151

143 Design Implementation and Maintenance of Measurement Systems
12
145 Interpretation of Results
13
146 Human Judgment
14
15 Quality Assurance
15
151 Laboratory Calibrations
16
152 Field Intercomparisons
17
154 Documentation
18
156 Publication of Data Quality Assessment
19
BIBLIOGRAPHY
20
Barometry
22
22 Direct Measurement of Pressure
23
221 Mercury Barometers
24
222 Aneroid Barometers
29
23 Indirect Measurement of Pressure
33
231 Boiling Point of a Liquid
34
24 Comparison of Barometer Types
37
241 Mercury Barometers
38
25 Exposure Error
39
26 Laboratory Experiment
40
27 Calibration of Barometers
42
QUESTIONS
43
BIBLIOGRAPHY
45
Static Performance Characteristics
47
32 Static Calibration
49
321 Definition of Terms Related to the Transfer Plot
50
322 Calibration Procedure
52
33 Example of a Static Calibration
56
34 Multiple Sources of Error
57
35 Significant Figures
58
QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS
60
BIBLIOGRAPHY
61
Thermometry
62
41 Thermal Expansion
63
412 LiquidinGlass Thermometer
65
42 Thermoelectric Sensors
67
43 Electrical Resistance Sensors
70
432 Thermistors
74
44 Comparison of Temperature Sensors
76
45 Exposure of Temperature Sensors
77
QUESTIONS More difficult questions are indicated with an asterisk
82
BIBLIOGRAPHY
84
NOTES
85
Hygrometry
86
52 Definitions
89
53 Methods for Measuring Humidity
93
533 Equilibrium Sorption of Water Vapor
96
534 Measurement of Physical Properties of Moist Air
100
535 Attainment of VaporLiquid or VaporSolid Equilibrium
104
536 Chemical Reactions
107
55 Calibration of Humidity Sensors
108
56 Exposure of Humidity Sensors
110
QUESTIONS
111
BIBLIOGRAPHY
114
NOTES
116
Dynamic Performance Characteristics Part 1
117
61 FirstOrder Systems
118
611 StepFunction Input
119
612 Ramp Input
122
613 Sinusoidal Input
123
62 Experimental Determination of Dynamic Performance Parameters
125
63 Application to Temperature Sensors
126
QUESTIONS
127
BIBLIOGRAPHY
128
82 Energy Storage Reservoirs
152
83 SecondOrder Systems
154
832 Ramp Input
157
833 Sinusoidal Input
158
84 Application to Sensors
159
85 Experimental Determination of Dynamic Performance Parameters
162
QUESTIONS
164
BIBLIOGRAPHY
165
Precipitation Rate
166
92 Methods of Measurement
167
922 Radar Rain Measurement
182
QUESTIONS
185
BIBLIOGRAPHY
187
Solar and Earth Radiation
189
102 Methods of Measurement
192
1021 Pyrheliometers
193
1022 Pyranometers
194
1023 Pyrgeometers
197
103 Measurement Errors
198
104 Exposure
199
QUESTIONS
200
BIBLIOGRAPHY
201
Visibility and Cloud Height
202
112 Measurement of Visibility
204
1121 Transmissometer
205
1122 Forward Scatter Meters
206
113 Measurement of Cloud Height
207
1132 Laser Ceilometer
208
QUESTIONS
210
BIBLIOGRAPHY
211
Upper Air Measurements
213
1211 Remote Sensing
214
122 Balloons
215
123 Wind Measurement
219
1231 Theodolites
220
1232 Radar
223
124 Radiosondes
225
125 Exposure Error
228
BIBLIOGRAPHY
229
Sampling and AnalogtoDigital Conversion
231
131 Signal Path
232
132 Drift
233
134 AnalogtoDigital Conversion
235
135 Information Content of a Signal
239
QUESTIONS
241
BIBLIOGRAPHY
243
Units and Constants
245
Numerical Values
246
BIBLIOGRAPHY
247
Thermistor Circuit Analysis
248
B2 A Circuit
250
B3 An Alternative Calibration Equation
252
Appendix C A Data Logger
253
C2 Application in a Measurement System
255
Circuits
258
D2 Simple Circuits
261
QUESTIONS
264
Geophysical Coordinate System
266
E3 Geophysical Coordinates
267
Appendix F Instrumentation Glossary
269
Index
285
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Micrometeorology
Thomas Foken
Limited preview - 2008

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