Methods for Assessing the Effects of Mixtures of Chemicals
Velimir B. Vouk
Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU), and the International Program on Chemical Safety (IPCS) of the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) by Wiley, 1987 - Biological monitoring - 894 pages
It has long been recognized that real exposures of people and non-human biota are generally two mixtures of chemicals, rather than two pure entities. In spite of this, evaluations in the field or laboratory have frequently only looked at single chemicals. Therefore, this book sets out to identify the limitations, practicalities and utility of dealing with chemicals in mixtures. It is the first systematic attempt to examine methods for evaluating mixtures of chemicals. This is a particularly difficult task and complete success cannot be claimed. However, suggestions for further study and research are made which may help to improve the approach to the subject.
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Introduction General Conclusions and Recommendations
Indicators of Human Exposure and Their Use in Monitoring
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absorption acid activity addition adducts aflatoxin agents air pollution analysis animals antipyrine approach aquatic assay assessment bioassay biological cancer carcinogenesis carcinogens cells chemical mixtures chlorinated chromosomal aberrations combined exposures complex mixtures components compounds concentrations contaminants cytogenetic detection dose drugs ecosystem effects of chemicals effects of mixtures effluent Environ environmental enzymes epidemiological evaluation example excretion experimental exposed factors fish fraction function genetic genotoxic Health human hydrocarbons increased individual induced inhibition insecticides interactions laboratory levels liver lymphocytes measure metabolism metabolites metals methods microbial microsomal mixtures of chemicals models monitoring mutagens Mutat nitrogen dioxide occupational organic oxide pesticides plants polychlorinated biphenyls population potential predict processes protein rainbow trout rats response risk samples sensitive single chemicals sister chromatid exchange soil species studies substances sulphur dioxide synergism synergistic techniques tissue toxicity toxicity tests Toxicol toxicological tumours uptake variables vitro vivo workers xenobiotic