## Recent Advances in Metrology and Fundamental Constants: Varenna on Lake Como, Villa Monastero, 25 July-4 August 2000Over the last decade of the 20th century, many improvements took place in the field of metrology and fundamental constants. These developments and improvements are discussed in this book. The old caesium SI second definition has found a new realization with the fountain approach, replacing the classical thermal atomic beam. The use of cold atom techniques, slowed down and cooled, has opened a number of unexpected avenues for metrology and fundamental constants, one of these possibilities being the atom interferometry. Another development was the demonstration of the possiblility of performing a direct frequency division in the visible, using short femtosecond pulses. Many other developments are also discussed. |

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### Contents

T J Quinn The international system of units SI the last ten years | 3 |

History of the development of the SI | 4 |

The two classes of SI units | 6 |

The SI prefixes | 8 |

Units outside the SI | 9 |

T J Quinn The organization of metrology | 11 |

The metre convention | 13 |

The 21st CGPM | 16 |

R S Davis Mass metrology | 241 |

B Jeckelmann The quantum Hall effect and its application in metrology | 263 |

Measurement techniques | 271 |

AC measurements of the QHR | 287 |

Basic physics of SET devices | 293 |

New applications | 317 |

K Helmerson and W D Phillips Cooling trapping and manipulation | 349 |

Deceleration and cooling of an atomic beam | 356 |

The broader organization of metrology | 20 |

International collaboration in metrology through regional cooperations | 22 |

The CIPM MRA | 23 |

Conclusions | 25 |

Mills Physical quantities and units | 27 |

Preamble | 28 |

Quantities | 30 |

Units | 31 |

Coherent systems of units | 33 |

Dimensions | 34 |

The SI prefixes | 38 |

On the number of independent base quantities and units | 39 |

Electromagnetic quantities and units | 41 |

S Leschiutta Metrology and the logic of physics | 51 |

VII | 64 |

T J Quinn Measurement and society | 73 |

S Leschiutta Education in metrology | 83 |

B W Petley I The fundamental constants and physics | 93 |

B W Petley II The fundamental constants and metrology | 121 |

T J Quinn The Newtonian constant of gravitation G | 147 |

B W Petley III The Planck constant | 157 |

G Mana The Avogadro constant pag | 177 |

Gavioso Determination of the universal gas constant R and other | 195 |

Cancio F Minardi and M Inguscio Finestructure constant a | 217 |

Improving the accuracy of helium spectroscopy | 234 |

SubDoppler laser cooling | 367 |

Metrology with cold atoms pag | 370 |

Nonlinear atom optics with BoseEinstein condensates | 383 |

Basic physics and impact | 397 |

Impact of atomic frequency standards on the SI | 444 |

Helmcke and F Riehle Physics behind the definition of the meter | 453 |

G Wilkening Optical and mechanical metrology 495 | 494 |

G Wilkening Nanometrology | 519 |

N P Fox Developments in optical radiometry | 537 |

P Wolf Relativity and metrology pag | 575 |

P Wolf Relativity with clocks in space | 599 |

350 | 626 |

laboratory test of a proposed | 645 |

W Bich Estimation and uncertainty in metrology | 653 |

Sergienko Quantum metrology with entangled photons | 715 |

351 | 723 |

T W Hansch R Holzwarth J Reichert and Th Udem Measuring | 747 |

353 | 761 |

Fort F Minardi M Modugno and M Inguscio Experiments with | 765 |

Ramseytype interferometer with BECs | 773 |

F T Arecchi Chaos metrology and fundamental constants | 781 |

Elenco dei partecipanti | 816 |

356 | 821 |

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### Common terms and phrases

absorption accuracy amplitude applications atomic beam atomic clock BIPM Bose-Einstein condensates Bragg diffraction calibration capacitance cavity CGPM CIPM CODATA coherent condensate density detection detector determined detuning deviation device diffraction diode Doppler effect electron emission energy equations Equivalence Principle error estimate experimental experiments fine-structure constant four-wave mixing frequency comb frequency stability frequency standards fundamental constants gravitational hyperfine IEEE Trans Instrum interaction interferometer International Josephson Josephson effect junctions laboratory laser beam laser cooling laser frequency Lett light linear magnetic field mass Meas measurements method metrology microwave modulation obtained optical frequency standards optical pumping oscillation output parameters phase photons Phys physics Planck constant probe pulse quantities quantum radiation radiometer ratio realization reference relative resonance sample shift shown in fig signal soliton spectral technique temperature theory thermal transition uncertainty velocity voltage wave wavelength zero