Recent Advances in Metrology and Fundamental Constants: Varenna on Lake Como, Villa Monastero, 25 July-4 August 2000

Front Cover
IOS Press, 2001 - Science - 827 pages
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Over the last decade of the 20th century, many improvements took place in the field of metrology and fundamental constants. These developments and improvements are discussed in this book. The old caesium SI second definition has found a new realization with the fountain approach, replacing the classical thermal atomic beam. The use of cold atom techniques, slowed down and cooled, has opened a number of unexpected avenues for metrology and fundamental constants, one of these possibilities being the atom interferometry. Another development was the demonstration of the possiblility of performing a direct frequency division in the visible, using short femtosecond pulses. Many other developments are also discussed.
 

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Contents

T J Quinn The international system of units SI the last ten years
3
History of the development of the SI
4
The two classes of SI units
6
The SI prefixes
8
Units outside the SI
9
T J Quinn The organization of metrology
11
The metre convention
13
The 21st CGPM
16
R S Davis Mass metrology
241
B Jeckelmann The quantum Hall effect and its application in metrology
263
Measurement techniques
271
AC measurements of the QHR
287
Basic physics of SET devices
293
New applications
317
K Helmerson and W D Phillips Cooling trapping and manipulation
349
Deceleration and cooling of an atomic beam
356

The broader organization of metrology
20
International collaboration in metrology through regional cooperations
22
The CIPM MRA
23
Conclusions
25
Mills Physical quantities and units
27
Preamble
28
Quantities
30
Units
31
Coherent systems of units
33
Dimensions
34
The SI prefixes
38
On the number of independent base quantities and units
39
Electromagnetic quantities and units
41
S Leschiutta Metrology and the logic of physics
51
VII
64
T J Quinn Measurement and society
73
S Leschiutta Education in metrology
83
B W Petley I The fundamental constants and physics
93
B W Petley II The fundamental constants and metrology
121
T J Quinn The Newtonian constant of gravitation G
147
B W Petley III The Planck constant
157
G Mana The Avogadro constant pag
177
Gavioso Determination of the universal gas constant R and other
195
Cancio F Minardi and M Inguscio Finestructure constant a
217
Improving the accuracy of helium spectroscopy
234
SubDoppler laser cooling
367
Metrology with cold atoms pag
370
Nonlinear atom optics with BoseEinstein condensates
383
Basic physics and impact
397
Impact of atomic frequency standards on the SI
444
Helmcke and F Riehle Physics behind the definition of the meter
453
G Wilkening Optical and mechanical metrology 495
494
G Wilkening Nanometrology
519
N P Fox Developments in optical radiometry
537
P Wolf Relativity and metrology pag
575
P Wolf Relativity with clocks in space
599
350
626
laboratory test of a proposed
645
W Bich Estimation and uncertainty in metrology
653
Sergienko Quantum metrology with entangled photons
715
351
723
T W Hansch R Holzwarth J Reichert and Th Udem Measuring
747
353
761
Fort F Minardi M Modugno and M Inguscio Experiments with
765
Ramseytype interferometer with BECs
773
F T Arecchi Chaos metrology and fundamental constants
781
Elenco dei partecipanti
816
356
821
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