Microbial Root Endophytes

Cover
Barbara J.E. Schulz, Christine J.C. Boyle, Thomas N. Sieber
Springer Science & Business Media, 24.05.2007 - 367 Seiten
1 Rezension

Plant roots may not only be colonized by mycorrhizal fungi, but also by a myriad of bacterial and fungal root endophytes that are usually not considered by the investigators of classic symbioses. This is the first book dedicated to the interactions of non-mycorrhizal microbial endophytes with plant roots.

The phenotypes of these interactions can be extremely plastic, depending on environmental factors, nutritional status, genetic disposition and developmental stages of the two partners. The book deals with diversity, life history strategies, interactions, applications in agriculture and forestry, methods for isolation, cultivation, and both conventional and molecular methods for identification and detection of these endophytes. The comprehensive reviews demonstrate the high diversity of interactions and will provoke further studies to better understand the mechanisms which determine whether a plant-microbial interaction remains asymptomatic, leads to disease or to a mutualistic interaction.

 

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Inhalt

What are Endophytes?
1
12 Colonisation
2
13 Assemblages and Adaptation
4
14 Life History Strategies
6
15 Balanced Antagonism
7
16 Conclusions
9
References
10
Spectrum and Population Dynamics of Bacterial Root Endophytes
14
References
188
Nematophagous Fungi as Root Endophytes
191
1121 Nematode Parasites
192
1122 Mycoparasites
195
113 Concluding Remarks
202
References
203
Molecular Diversity and Ecological Roles of MycorrhizaAssociated Sterile Fungal Endophytes in Mediterranean Ecosystems
207
122 Diversity of DSE Associates of Ecto and EndoMycorrhizal Plants in Mediterranean Ecosystems in Northern Italy
209

23 Bacterial Spectrum
16
24 Bacterial Diversity
21
252 Geography
22
254 Plant Genotype
23
26 Interactions
24
262 Plant Symbionts
25
27 Potential Human Pathogens Among Root Endophytes
26
28 Conclusions
27
References
28
Bacterial Endophytes as Elicitors of Induced Systemic Resistance
33
32 Scope of Endophytes that Elicit Induced Resistance and Pathosystems Affected
34
33 Internal Colonization of Endophytes that Elicit Induced Resistance
39
34 Plant Responses to Endophytic Elicitors
41
Two Case Studies
44
36 Conclusions
49
References
50
Control of Plant Pathogenic Fungi with Bacterial Endophytes
53
42 Spectrum of Indigenous Endophytic Bacteria with Antagonistic Potential Towards Fungal Plant Pathogens
54
43 Mode of Action of Antagonistic Bacteria
58
432 Competition
59
434 Induction of Plant Defence Mechanisms
60
45 Enhancing Biocontrol Efficiency
61
46 Conclusions
65
References
66
Role of Proteins Secreted by Rhizobia in Symbiotic Interactions with Leguminous Roots
70
52 Bacterial Protein Secretion Systems
73
522 Type II Secretion Systems
77
524 Type IV Secretion Systems
82
53 Conclusions
83
Research on Endophytic Bacteria Recent Advances with Forest Trees
89
62 Bacterial Endophytes of Forest Trees
91
63 Endophytic Bacteria of Conifers
92
64 Modes and Sites of Entry
95
65 Mechanisms of Plant Growth Promotion
97
66 Future Work
102
References
103
Biodiversity of Fungal RootEndophyte Communities and Populations in Particular of the Dark Septate Endophyte Phialocephala fortinii sl
107
72 Species Diversity of Root Endophyte Communities
108
721 Geography and Climate
109
722 Soil
114
723 Multitrophic Interactions
115
724 Natural and Anthropogenic Disturbances
117
73 Dark Septate Endophytes
119
733 Diversity of Phialocephala fortinii
121
74 Conclusions
125
References
126
Endophytic Root Colonization by Fusarium Species Histology Plant Interactions and Toxicity
133
82 Plant and Fungus Interactions
134
821 Hemibiotrophic Characteristics
138
822 Histology
139
823 Mycotoxins
143
824 Mycotoxins and Host Relationships
144
825 Physiological Interactions and Defense Metabolites
145
83 Summary
146
References
147
Microbial Endophytes of Orchid Roots
153
93 Bacteria as Epiphytes and Endophytes of Orchid Roots
154
94 Orchid Endophytes or Orchid Mycorrhizal Fungi?
155
95 Problems with the Taxonomy of Orchid Endophytic Fungi
157
96 Host Specificity of Orchid Endophytes
158
98 Endophytic Fungi in Roots of MycoHeterotrophic Orchids
167
99 Endophytic Fungi in Roots of Epiphytic and Lithophytic Orchids
169
Importance to Plant Hosts
171
911 Conclusions
172
References
173
Fungal Endophytes in Submerged Roots
178
102 Aquatic Hyphomycetes
180
103 Fungi in Submerged Roots
181
104 Conclusions and Outlook
186
123 Ecological Relationships with Conventional Mycorrhizal and Pathogenic Symbionts
214
124 Conclusions
219
References
220
Oidiodendron maius Saprobe in Sphagnum Peat Mutualist in Ericaceous Roots?
227
132 Oidiodendron maius as a Saprobe
230
133 Ericoid Mycorrhizas
234
134 Oidiodendron maius as an Ericoid Mycorrhizal Fungus
237
135 Significance and Relevance
239
136 Conclusions
241
References
242
Mycorrhizal and Endophytic Fungi of Epacrids Ericaceae
247
142 Endophytes of Epacrid Roots
248
143 Diversity and Spatial Distribution of Endophyte Taxa in Epacrid Root Systems
251
144 Mycorrhizal Status of Endophytes from Epacrids
253
145 Saprotrophic Potential of Mycorrhizal Fungi
254
146 Symbiotic Functioning of Mycorrhizal Fungi
255
147 Conclusions
257
Mutualistic Interactions with Fungal Root Endophytes
261
152 Colonisation and Histology
262
153 Secondary Metabolites
264
154 Growth Enhancement
265
155 Disease Suppression
269
156 Stress Tolerance
271
157 Factors Determining the Status of the Interaction
272
158 Conclusions
273
References
276
Understanding the Roles of Multifunctional Mycorrhizal and Endophytic Fungi
281
1612 Roles of Endophytes and Mycorrhizal Fungi
282
162 Endophytic Activity by Mycorrhizal Fungi
283
1622 Ectomycorrhizal Fungi
286
1623 Fungi in Orchids
287
1624 Ericoid Mycorrhizal Fungi
290
163 Issues with the Identification and Categorisation of Fungi in Roots
291
164 Evolution of RootFungus Associations
292
165 Conclusions
293
Isolation Procedures for Endophytic Microorganisms
299
172 Surface Sterilisation
300
1722 Sterilising Agents
301
1723 Surfactants
305
173 Culture of Tissue and Plant Fluid of Sterilised Roots on Nutrient Medium
306
1733 Centrifugation of Root Tissue
307
174 Vacuum and Pressure Extraction
308
175 Media
309
1751 Media for Isolating Bacteria
310
1754 Selective Media
311
177 Quantification of Colonisation
313
References
314
Microbial Interactions with Plants a Hidden World?
320
182 Microscopic Techniques for Studying PlantMicrobe Interactions
322
1822 Scanning Electron Microscopy
324
1823 Epifluorescence Microscopy and the Application of AutoFluorescent Proteins
325
183 Visualisation of BacteriumPlant Interactions
327
184 Most Recent Developments in Visualising PlantMicroorganism Interactions
330
185 Visualisation of PlantFungus Interactions
331
186 Future Perspectives
333
Application of Molecular Fingerprinting Techniques to Explore the Diversity of Bacterial Endophytic Communities
337
192 Colonisation by Bacterial Endophytes
338
194 Molecular methods to Study Bacterial Endophytes
340
195 Molecular Fingerprinting of Endophyte Communities
341
1952 Sample Preparation
342
1953 Nucleic Acid Extraction
343
1954 PCR and Molecular Community Fingerprinting
344
1955 GroupSpecific Molecular Community Fingerprinting
345
1956 Molecular Identification of Species and Genes
348
197 Conclusions
349
References
350
Subject Index
355
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