Microfabricated Cortical Neuroprostheses

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EPFL Press, Jan 14, 2011 - Medical - 250 pages
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The use of neural implants for stimulation and recording show excellent promise in restoring certain functions to the central nervous system; and neuroprostheses remains one of the most important tools of neuroscientists for the elucidation of the brain's function. Ailments such as Parkinson's disease, obesity, blindness, and epilepsy are being studied from this angle. Development of better electrodes for recording and stimulation is therefore critical to ensure continuing progress in this field.

This book addresses one of the main clinical complications with the use of electrodes, namely the reaction of the neurological tissue in the immediate vicinity of an implanted device. The authors describe new techniques for assessing this phenomenon, as well as new microfabrication techniques to impede the inflammatory response of the brain. Inflammation can adversely effect these devices, limiting their lifetime and reducing their effectiveness. The measurement protocols and improved fabrication protocols described within these pages will become standard tools in the future of neuroprostheses.

The author holds two U.S. patents on microassembly and is also a Review Editor for Frontiers in Neuroengineering.

 

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Contents

Introduction
9
References
33
Microfabrication Techniques
43
Neural Recording and Stimulation
59
in vivo Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy
87
Controlled Release Drug Coatings
117
Conclusion
137
Index
143
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About the author (2011)

Andre Mercanzini has experience in both academic and industrial research environments, having developed MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) for a wide range of applications. He has held internships at the Institute for Biomedical Engineering (University of Toronto), the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), the Zyvex Corporation, and at Bosch Research in Palo Alto, California where he developed silicon processes for the Stanford Nanofabrication Facility. He holds two issued US patents on microassembly and has two patents pending on neurostimulation devices. Andre received his Ph.D. in bioengineering from the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) in 2009

Philippe Renaud is Professor at the Microsystem Laboratory (LMIS4) at the EPFL and scientific director of the EPFL Center of MicroNanoTechnology (CMI). His main research area is related to micronano technologies in biomedical applications (BioMEMS) with emphasis on cell-chips, nanofluidics and bioelectronics. After receiving his Ph.D. degree from the University of Lausanne (1988), he was a postdoctoral fellow at University of California, Berkeley, and then at the IBM Zurich Research Laboratory in Switzerland, before joining the Swiss Center for Electronics and Microtechnology (CSEM) at Neuchatel, Switzerland in 1992. He has been at the EPFL since 1994. Dr. Renaud is active in several scientific committees (scientific journals, international conferences, scientific advisory boards of companies) and is deeply involved in several high-tech start-up companies.

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