Microfluidics for Biotechnology

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Artech House, 2010 - Science - 483 pages
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The application of microfluidics to biotechnology is an exciting new area that has already begun to revolutionize how researchers study and manipulate macromolecules like DNA, proteins and cells in vitro and within living organisms. Now in a newly revised and expanded second edition, the Artech House bestseller, Microfluidics for Biotechnology brings you to the cutting edge of this burgeoning field. Among the numerous updates, the second edition features three entirely new chapters on: non-dimensional numbers in microfluidics; interface, capillarity and microdrops; and digital, two-phase and droplet microfluidics.Presenting an enlightening balance of numerical approaches, theory, and experimental examples, this book provides a detailed look at the mechanical behavior of the different types of micro/nano particles and macromolecules that are used in biotechnology. You gain a solid understanding of microfluidics theory and the mechanics of microflows and microdrops. The book examines the diffusion of species and nanoparticles, including continuous flow and discrete Monte-Carlo methods.This unique volume describes the transport and dispersion of biochemical species and particles. You learn how to model biochemical reactions, including DNA hybridization and enzymatic reactions. Moreover, the book helps you master the theory, applications, and modeling of magnetic beads behavior and provides an overview of self-assembly and magnetic composite. Other key topics include the electric manipulation of micro/nanoparticles and macromolecules and the experimental aspects of biological macromolecule manipulation.
 

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Contents

6211 Determination of the Diffusion Coefficient
264
6212 Mixing of Fluids
265
63 Trajectory Calculation
271
631 Trajectories of Particles in a Microflow
272
632 Ballistic Random Walk BRW
275
64 SeparationPurification of Bioparticles
279
642 Chromatography Columns
280
65 Cellular Microfluidics
282

Microflows
17
22 SinglePhase Microflows
18
221 NavierStokes NS Equations
19
222 NonNewtonian Rheology
24
223 Laminarity of Microflows
32
224 Stokes Equation
35
225 HagenPoiseuille Flow
38
226 Pressure Drop and Friction Factor
40
227 Bernoullis Approach
45
Lumped Parameters Model
48
Worked Example 1Microfluidic Flow Inside a Microneedle
50
Worked Example 2Plasma Extraction from Blood
56
Establishment of the Flow
58
2212 Distributing a Uniform Flow into a Microchamber
60
2213 The Example of a Protein Reactor
61
2214 Recirculation Regions
62
Dean Flow
65
HelleShaw Flows
69
23 Conclusion
70
Interfaces Capillarity and Microdrops
73
322 Surface Tension
76
33 Laplace Law and Applications
80
332 Examples of the Application of Laplaces Law
84
34 Partial or Total Wetting
86
Youngs Law
87
352 Youngs Law for Two Liquids and a Solid
90
353 Generalization of Youngs LawNeumanns Construction
91
36 Capillary Force and Force on a Triple Line
93
363 Capillary Rise in a TubeJurins Law
95
364 Capillary Rise Between Two Parallel Vertical Plates
97
365 Capillary Pumping
98
366 Force on a Triple Line
99
367 Examples of Capillary Forces in Microsystems
100
37 Pinning and Canthotaxis
101
373 Droplet Pinning on a Surface Defect
103
374 Pinning of a MicrodropletQuadruple Contact Line
104
375 Pinning in Microwells
105
382 Drops on Inhomogeneous Surfaces
118
39 Conclusions
126
References
128
Digital TwoPhase and Droplet Microfluidics
131
423 EWOD Microsystems
151
424 Conclusion
160
43 Multiphase Microflows
161
433 Dynamic Contact Angle
162
434 Hysteresis of the Static Contact Angle
163
435 Interface and Meniscus
164
437 TwoPhase Flow Pressure Drop
167
438 Microbubbles
168
Droplet Engulfment
170
44 Droplet Microfluidics
173
442 TJunctions
174
443 Micro Flow Focusing Devices MFFD
182
444 Highly Viscous FluidsEncapsulation
187
45 Conclusions
194
References
195
Diffusion of Biochemical Species
201
Concentration
202
531 Ficks Law
203
533 Spreading from a Point Source1D Case
207
Ilkovics Solution
208
535 Example of Diffusion Between Two Plates
209
536 Radial Diffusion
211
537 Diffusion Inside a Microchamber
213
The Example of Simultaneous PCRs
214
Diffusion or Sedimentation
220
54 Microscopic Discrete Approach
222
Drug Diffusion in the Human Body
226
55 Conclusion
235
References
236
Transport of Biochemical Species and Cellular Microfluidics
237
622 Source Terms
240
623 Boundary Conditions
241
624 Coupling with Hydrodynamics
242
625 Physical Properties as a Function of the Concentration of the Species
244
626 Dimensional Analysis and Peclet Number
247
627 Concentration Boundary Layer
248
628 Numerical Considerations
251
629 TaylorAris Approach
253
6210 Distance of Capture in a Capillary
258
651 Flow Focusing
283
652 Pinched Channel Microsystems
287
653 Deterministic ArraysDeterministic Lateral Displacement DLD
289
654 Lift Forces on Particles
291
655 Dean Flows in Curved Microchannels
294
657 Recirculation Chambers
297
66 Conclusion
298
References
299
Biochemical Reactions in Biochips
303
722 Biorecognition
304
723 Biochip Technology
306
73 Biochemical Reactions
309
732 Michaelis Menten Model
315
733 Adsorption and the Langmuir Model
322
734 Biological Reactions
325
74 Biochemical Reactions in Microsystems
327
741 Homogeneous Reactions
328
742 Heterogeneous Reactions
332
75 Conclusion
357
Experimental Approaches to MicroparticlesBased Assays
361
811 Biopolymers
362
812 Some Aspects of Cells
367
82 Microparticles as Biotechnological Tools
368
821 Fluorescent Particles
369
822 Other Micro and Nanoparticles
371
823 Chemical Modification of Surfaces
375
83 Experimental Methods of Characterization
376
Light Scattering
386
833 Biochemical Characterization
387
84 Molecular Micromanipulation
391
842 Optical Tweezers
392
843 FlowBased Techniques
393
References
394
Selected Bibliography
396
Magnetic Particles in Biotechnology
397
912 Composition and Fabrication of Magnetic Beads
398
913 An Example of Displacement by Magnetic Beads for Biodetection
400
914 The Question of the Size of the Magnetic Beads
401
92 Characterization of Magnetic Beads
402
922 Ferromagnetic Microparticles
403
931 Paramagnetic Microparticles
404
94 Deterministic Trajectory
405
95 Example of a Ferromagnetic Rod
406
951 Governing Equations
407
952 Analytical Solution for the Magnetic Field
408
953 Trajectories Carrier Fluid at Rest
409
954 Trajectories Carrier Fluid Convection
410
96 Magnetic Repulsion
412
97 Magnetic Beads in EWOD Microsystems
413
98 Example of a Separation Column
415
99 Concentration Approach
417
910 Example of MFFF
419
9101 Trajectories
420
9102 Concentration of Magnetic Beads
422
9103 Results and Comparison
423
912 Magnetic Fluids
428
9122 Magnetic Force on a Plug of Ferrofluid
429
9123 Notes
430
9131 Principle
431
9133 Oscillation of Magnetic Membranes
433
914 Conclusion
436
Micromanipulations and Separations Using Electric Fields
439
1012 ElectroOsmosis
442
1013 Electrophoresis of a Charged Particle
443
1014 Electrophoresis of DNA
445
1015 Electrophoresis of Proteins
451
1016 Cell Electrophoresis
453
1022 The ClausiusMossoti Factor
456
1023 Optimization of the Electric Field
457
1024 Characterization of Particles
458
1025 Electrorotation and Traveling Wave
460
1026 Instabilities
462
1027 DEPBased Separations
464
References
468
Conclusion
473
List of Symbols
475
About the Authors
477
Index
479
Copyright

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About the author (2010)

Jean Berthier is a professor at the University of Grenoble and a scientist at CEA/LETI. He holds a masters degree in mathematics from the University of Grenoble and both an engineers and masters degree in fluid mechanics from the Institut National Polytechnique.

Pascal Silberzan is a senior scientist at the Physico-Chimie Curie Laboratory, a joint laboratory of the Centre National of the Recherche Scientifique and the Institut Curie in Paris. He received his Ph.D. from the College of France and the University Paris 6.

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