Migrant Labour in South Africa's Mining Economy: The Struggle for the Gold Mines' Labour Supply, 1890-1920
This book is a study of the origins of migratory labour and racial discrimination in South Africa's premier industry, the gold mines of the Witwatersrand. Based upon government records and private business archives, it examines the highly competitive world of mine labour recruiting at the turn of the century and concludes that this regimented labour system was the product not only of the mining companies but also of political pressures and economic needs in South African society. The systerm was remarkable for the hardship it imposed, for the size of the labour force recruited - more than 200,000 low-wage black labourers were delivered annually to the industry's grim, barrack-like compounds - and for the fact that most of the workers were African pastoralists without previous industrial experience. Forced to work in appalling conditions amid much squalor and disease, more than 50,000 miners died on the Witwatersrand in a single decade.
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administration Afrikaner agreement Beit black labour black workers Botha Cape Town Central Mining Chamber of Mines Chinese labour colony companies competition for labour competitive recruiting compounds contract costs desertion Despite developed districts Dower eastern Cape Eckstein economy efforts employers employment encl established evidence GNLB gold mines headmen Het Volk Ibid industry's Johannesburg Johannesburg Star labour agents labour contractors labour recruiting labour supply labour system Lagden large numbers licences Lionel Phillips Lourenco Marques manager memorandum ment migrant labour mineworkers mining groups mining houses mining industry minister monopsony Mozambique Natal Native Affairs Department Native Labour Bureau northern Transvaal Nyasaland officials political Portuguese Rand Randfontein Randlords recruiting fees recruiting levels recruiting organization recruiting system repatriation Robinson group runners S.M. Pritchard secretary Smuts SNAA South African Taberer Taberer's territories tion trader/recruiters Transkei Transvaal government tropical Union government Volk voluntary labour wage advances Witwatersrand WNLA