Migration and Remittances: Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union
Ali M. Mansoor, Bryce Quillin
World Bank Publications, 2006 - Business & Economics - 213 pages
Migration in Eastern Europe and Central Asia is relatively large by international standards, driven both by political factors (the 1990 collapse of the Soviet system, ensuing emergence of conflicts and new states, and opening of borders with Europe) and economic factors (abrupt economic deterioration and corresponding search for better employment and living conditions). The report anlayzes the different kinds of migration as well as the policies on both sides of the equation to limit negative side effects (like emargination, criminal activities, and brain drain) and maximize positive ones (increased labor pool for services, remittances, return migration with improved human and financial capital).
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abroad Albania appendix table Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus bilateral agreements Bosnia and Herzegovina brain drain Bulgaria CEECs Central Asia circular migration coun country of origin country’s Croatia Czech Republic decline destination country Eastern EBRD ECA region economic emigration estimates Estonia ethnic Europe and Central European countries expected factors figure foreign former Soviet Union Georgia Germany growth GTAP highly skilled home country Hungary illegal immigration improve incentives international migration investment Kazakhstan Kyrgyz Republic labor market labor migration Latvia levels Lithuania ment migration flows Migration rate migration-sending million Moldova origin countries patterns percent period Poland population receiving countries remittances returned migrants Romania Russia Russian Federation sectors sending countries Serbia and Montenegro significant Slovak Republic Slovenia social Source Soviet Union statistical survey Tajikistan tion trafficking transition Turkey Turkmenistan Ukraine undocumented migration unskilled Uzbekistan variable wage Western Europe World Bank
Page 137 - Index (CPI) ranks countries in terms of the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians.
Page 136 - Fixed assets include land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including commercial and industrial buildings, offices, schools, hospitals, and private residential dwellings. lnventories are stocks of goods held by firms to meet temporary or unexpected fluctuations in production or sales.
Page 21 - Albania Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Czech Republic Estonia Georgia Hungary Kazakhstan Kyrgyz Republic Latvia Lithuania Macedonia...
Page 136 - Gross domestic product (GDP) at purchaser prices is the sum of the gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources.
Page xvii - Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Poland, Romania, the Slovak Republic, and Slovenia.
Page 214 - Revolution on recycled paper with 30 percent post-consumer waste, in accordance with the recommended standards for paper usage set by the Green Press Initiative, a nonprofit program supporting publishers in using fiber that is not sourced from endangered forests.
Page xvii - Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan...
Page 138 - Government stability Socioeconomic conditions Investment profile Internal conflict External conflict Corruption Military in politics Religious tensions Law and order Ethnic tensions Democratic accountability Bureaucracy quality B.
Page 137 - Voice and accountability Political stability and absence of violence Government effectiveness Regulatory quality Rule of law...