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able adaptation alarm call apes appear aspects australopithecines aware bipedal birds body weight brain lateralisation brain weight Broca's area cage capuchins cells chapter characteristics chickens chimpanzees cognitive abilities cognitive capacity communication compared complex cognition consciousness in animals cortex deception discussed environment ethologists evidence evolved example experience fact feel forebrain frontal lobes function gorillas handedness higher cognition hippocampus hominids Homo erectus Homo habilis human brain increase individual intelligence Kanzi Koko laboratory lateralisation left hemisphere macaque mammalian mammals memories mental representations million years ago mind mirror monkeys neocortex neurons objects occur orang-utans pain paleocortex particular peck perform pigeons planning ahead predator prefrontal cortex primates problem rats recognise regions relative right hemisphere right-handedness scientists sciousness self-awareness social behaviour song spatial specialised speech symbols task tested tool unique to humans University vervet monkeys visual vocalisations Wernicke's area whereas wild young chick
Page 181 - We patronize them for their incompleteness, for their tragic fate of having taken form so far below ourselves. And therein we err, and greatly err. For the animal shall not be measured by man. In a world older and more complete than ours they move finished and complete, gifted with extensions of the senses we have lost or never attained, living by voices we shall never hear. They are not brethren, they are not underlings; they are other nations, caught with ourselves in the net of life and time,...
Page 129 - ... conscious. Many nonhumans show brain (and hand) lateralizations, as humans do, and the left hemisphere is characteristically linked with communication in mammals, birds and frogs, whereas the right side is linked with solving spatial problems and the processing of emotions. As Lesley Rogers concludes: "We know of no single structure in the brain that is unique to humans".
Page 72 - Some species in very cold climates even remember where their many caches are located from autumn until the following spring — and they store several hundreds of seeds over a period of just a few weeks.
Page 182 - No two animals are exactly the same, but individuality in brain function and behaviour must have become increasingly elaborate during evolution. Physical and mental uniqueness of individuals might be a precursor to self-awareness because the self must be distinguishable from others. Social behaviour also relies on individuals being different. Each individual must be recognised by its appearance and behaviour.
Page 57 - One could say that there are many different 'intelligences', rather than ranking all species on the same scale of intelligence. Some species that may appear to be less intelligent than others when they are all tested on the same, rather arbitrarily chosen task (eg going around a barrier to reach something on the other side) may perform very 'intelligently' on tasks better 57 suited to their own specialised abilities.
Page 43 - ... baited. The guesser either waited outside the room while the cups were being baited or stood in the room with a bag over his head. At testing the knower pointed to the baited cup, whereas the guesser pointed to any cup at random.
Page 147 - Although individual apes are preferentially right- or lefthanded, there is no population preference; modern humans are unique in this respect. Toth's discovery gives us an important evolutionary insight: some 2 million years ago, the brain of Homo was already becoming truly human, in the way that we know ourselves to be.
Page 52 - This is an extremely complex process. When chimpanzees set out to hunt down another primate to kill it for food, they appear to be doing so with intent. They use integrated strategies to corner their prey that cannot be completely preprogrammed.
Page 34 - Mutual looking in the same direction is observed commonly in the wild in a wide range of species, but this may simply occur because all members of the group have spotted the same visual stimulus or heard a sound coming from that direction. To be...
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