Mineralogy: An Introduction to the Scientific Study of Minerals

Front Cover
Macmillan and Company, limited, 1902 - Mineralogy - 584 pages
 

What people are saying - Write a review

We haven't found any reviews in the usual places.

Contents

Use of Geometrical Methods
12
Combinations
14
Stmmetry
15
Planes of Symmetry
16
Forms
17
Derivation of Forms from the Cube
18
CrystalAxes
21
Law of Rational Intercepts
25
Indices
26
Law of Rational Indices
27
Zones
28
The Angle between Crystal Faces
31
Zone Symbol
33
The Zonelaw
34
Axes of Symmetry Centre of Symmetry
35
The Thirtytwo Classes of Crystals
37
The Six Systems
38
The Various Kinds of Forms
43
The Cubic System Holosymmetric Class
45
TETRAnKDRITE ClASS
47
Pyrites Class
49
Cuprite Class
50
Ullmannite Class
51
The Tetragonal System Holosymmetric Class
52
Chalcopyrite Class
55
Scheelite Cl A88
56
Wulfenite Class
57
Axial Ratio
58
The Orthorhombic System Holosymmetric Class
59
Sulphur Class
62
Axial Ratios
63
The Hexagonal System The Two Sorts of Crystal Axes
64
The Hexagonal System Holosymmetric Class
67
Calcite Class
69
Tourmaline Class
72
Dioptase Class
74
Greenockite Class
76
Axial Ratio or the Axial 1 Lngle
77
The Monoclinic System Holosymmetric Class
78
Axial Ratios
81
The Anorthic System Holosymmktkic Class
82
Axial Ratios and Angles
83
CHAPTER II
84
Regular Conjunction of Crystals which are not Parallel nor Twinned
85
Twinning
86
Supplementary Twinning
89
Repeated Twinning
91
Mimetic Twinning and Pseudosymmetry
93
Secondary Twinning
95
CHAPTER III
96
Light Figures
97
CHAPTER IV
99
The Reflecting Goniometer
100
SOME PHYSICAL PROPERTIES CHARACTERISTIC OF CRYSTALS On the Relation between Phy sical Properties and Form
107
Hardness
110
Etched Figures
111
Pyroelectricity
115
CHAPTER VI
118
Interference
119
Colours of Thin Plates
120
Newtons Scale of Colours
123
PlanePolarised Light
125
Resolution and Analysis of Polarised Light
126
Action of Crystals on Light
127
Double Refraction of Iceland Spar
128
Double Refraction of Crystals in general
130
Examination in Parallel Light
132
Examination in Convergent Light
133
Rays and Beams of Light in a Crystal
134
The Fkesnel Ellipsoid Kir 15 The Indicatrix 187
135
Biaxial Crystals
138
Uniaxial Crystals
141
The Optical Constants
163
CHAPTER VII
166
The Sign of the Birefringence
170
Use of the Quartz Wedge with Biaxial Crystals
172
The Method of Compensation
174
The Method of Sensitive Plates
175
Determination of the Pleochroism 17t
176
Measurement of the Optic Axial Angle
177
CHAPTER VIII
182
BOOK II
187
THE GENERAL PROPERTIES OF MINERALS CHAPTER I
189
Specific Heat
193
B THE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES PAfr
195
The Elements in Minerals
196
Atomic Constitution of Minerals 11 ti 3 Equivalence of Atoms in Minerals
198
Equivalence of Radicles in Minerals 5 Classification of Minerals by Acid Radicles 200
200
Normal Acid and Basic Salts
203
Basicity of Acids
205
Classification of the Silicates JoS
206
BOOK III
210
THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE PROPERTIES OF MINERALS
211
Isomorphism Polymorphism and Vicarious Replacement
213
Mineral Groups
215
The Physical Relations of Minerals belonging to the same Gkou
217
The Variations in the Composition of a Mineral
223
Isomorphous Mixtures 22f
225
Mixtures of Dimorphous Substances
227
The Crystalline Form and Physical Properties of Solid Solutions
228
The Optical Properties of Solid Solutions
232
Optical Properties of the Felspar Group
234
Intergrowths and Overgrowths of different Minerals J iti 11 Intergrowths and Overgrowths of the same Mineral
238
The Structure of Minerals
240
BOOK IV
243
CHAPTER I
245
HabitSurface Characters of Crystal FacesAggregation of CrystalsForm and Structure of Crystal AggregatesAmor phous Minerals
246
Characters depending upon Cohesion
254
CHAPTER II
266
The Thirtytwo Classes of Crystals
278
SECTION I
291
Sulphur
298
SECTION II
308
The Galena Group
315
The CopperGlance Group
321
The Marcasite Group
329
SECTION VI
336
StEPHANITE
342
SECTION IX
351
The Hydrated Sesquioxides
357
The Cassiterite Group
363
SECTION XII
382
SECTION XIII
388
The Calcite Group
392
The Aragonite Group 106
405
Relation between the Calcite and Araqonite Groups 110
411
SILICATES OF DIVALENT METALS Continued
417
The Amphibole Group 42 1
425
SECTION XVII
433
Apophyllite
440
andalusite ash cyanite
445
SECTION XX
452
SECTION XXI
469
Tourmaline
478
The Heulandite Group
486
Vbsuvianite
494
SECTION XXIV
501
Zircon 607
507
The Olivenite Group 616
516
Anhydrite
526
The Niobates and Tantalates
533
General Survey of the Mineral Kingdom
535
Tables of Reactions
548
INDEX
563

Other editions - View all

Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 257 - ... most important of their physical constants; but as there is no means of expressing the results in absolute measure, recourse must be had to an indirect method, in which comparative hardness is measured by a scale of typical minerals. This, known as Moh's scale of hardness, is as follows : — 1. Talc. 6. Orthoclase. 2. Gypsum or Rock Salt. 7. Quartz. 3. Calcite. 8. Topaz. 4. Fluorspar. 9. Corundum. 5. Apatite. 10. Diamond. Breithaupt, while preserving these numbers, proposed to interpolate Mica...
Page 6 - From what has been said above it will be clear that the acquisition of experience, the growth of knowledge, is a unique species of gift and acceptance.
Page 270 - ... also be used in the process ; however, the glass tube gives, in most cases, results more clearly evident, and affords moreover the advantage that volatile bodies are less likely to escape detection. To ascertain the products of oxidation of a body it is sometimes advisable also to heat it in a short glass tube, open at both ends, and held in a slanting position ; small quantities of a metallic sulphide, for instance, may be readily detected by this means ( 156, 6).
Page 189 - Its loss of weight in water is equal to the weight of the volume of water displaced by the solid. Therefore, the specific gravity of the solid is equal to its weight in air divided by the loss of weight in water.
Page 527 - Fig. 29 shows the appearance when this plane is inclined 45 to the planes of vibration of the nicols. As the stage, carrying the section, is rotated the dark cross changes into two hyperbolas, which again unite to form a cross.
Page 368 - Cselesti humore , parvaque nive id fleri necesse est : ideo caloris impatiens, non nisi frigido potui addicitur. Quare sexangulis nascatur lateribus, non facile ratio inveniri potest : eo magis quod neque mucronibus eadem species est, et ita absolutus est laterum laevor, ut nulla id arte possit aequari.
Page 475 - ... monosymmetric system, show nearly identical angles, and crystallize together in all proportions. The ammonium salt has a cleavage parallel to the basal plane, the optic axes lie in the plane of symmetry, and the optic axial angle is 42 38'.
Page 128 - ... index of refraction. When oriented in one position with respect to the direction of the incident ray, the crystal behaves normally, and that direction is called the optic axis of the crystal. A ray incident on the crystal to form an angle with the optic axis is broken into two rays, one of which obeys the ordinary laws of refraction and is called the ordinary ray, the second ray is called the extraordinary ray. The two rays are plane-polarized in mutually perpendicular planes. By eliminating...
Page 5 - One important branch of scientific mineralogy is the study of the modes and places of occurrence of minerals, their origin and the changes to which they are subject. This is to a large extent an entirely independent subject, except in so far as it throws light upon the nature of the...
Page 461 - BaAUSijOs with 2 (KAlSijOj) , ie, as compounded of two molecules of orthoclase with one molecule of barium silicate similar to anorthite. This union is exactly analogous to the mixture of albite and anorthite in the (plagioclase) group .... but in hyalophane the mixture appears to be only in one definite proportion, so that the mineral is to be regarded as a double salt rather than a solid solution. A similar view is taken by Moses and Parsons2 who give hyalophane the following formula: (K3,Ba)Al2(Si03)4...

Bibliographic information