Misconceptions in Chemistry: Addressing Perceptions in Chemical Education

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Springer Science & Business Media, Nov 18, 2008 - Science - 294 pages
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Over the last decades several researchers discovered that children, pupils and even young adults develop their own understanding of "how nature really works". These pre-concepts concerning combustion, gases or conservation of mass are brought into lectures and teachers have to diagnose and to reflect on them for better instruction. In addition, there are ‘school-made misconceptions’ concerning equilibrium, acid-base or redox reactions which originate from inappropriate curriculum and instruction materials. The primary goal of this monograph is to help teachers at universities, colleges and schools to diagnose and ‘cure’ the pre-concepts. In case of the school-made misconceptions it will help to prevent them from the very beginning through reflective teaching. The volume includes detailed descriptions of class-room experiments and structural models to cure and to prevent these misconceptions.

 

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This book (if it can be called that) claims (p.12) that chlorine was discovered by Davy in the year 1810. That's just the beginning: errors of fact, of spelling and more senseless BS than can be shoveled in a month by a team of stokers round out this volume. That a reputable firm like Springer Verlag would risk their hard-won reputation by having their name on the cover is simply amazing. If you're teaching editors or elementary composition this is definitely a 'before' book. 

Contents

Introduction
1
Perceptions of Ancient Scientists
9
11 The Theory of Basic Matter
10
13 The Phlogiston Theory
11
14 Historic AcidBase Theories
12
15 Horror Vacui and the Particle Concept
14
16 Atoms and the Structure of Matter
15
References
20
53 Mental Models on Ionic Bonding
115
54 Chemical Structures and Symbolic Language
125
55 Experiments on StructureProperty Relationships E51 Silver Crystals Through Electrolysis
130
References
140
Further Reading
142
Chemical Equilibrium
145
62 Empirical Research
146
63 Teaching and Learning Suggestions
156

Students Misconceptions and How to Overcome Them
21
22 SchoolMade Misconceptions
24
23 Students Concepts and Scientific Language
26
24 Effective Strategies for Teaching and Learning
28
References
33
Further Reading
34
Substances and Properties
37
31 Animistic Modes of Speech
38
32 Concepts of Transformation
39
33 Concepts of Miscibility for Compounds
41
34 Concepts of Destruction
43
35 Concepts of Combustion
46
36 Concepts of Gases as not Substances
50
37 Experiments on Substances and Their Properties
52
References
64
Further Reading
65
Particle Concept of Matter
67
41 Smallest Particles of Matter and Mental Models
70
42 Preformed and Nonpreformed Particles
73
43 Smallest Particles as Portions of Matter
76
44 Particles and the Horror Vacui
78
45 Particles Generic Term for Atoms Ions and Molecules
82
46 Formation of Particles and Spatial Ability
83
47 Diagnosis Test for Understanding the Particle Model of Matter
86
48 Experiments on Particle Model of Matter
93
References
99
Further Reading
100
StructureProperty Relationships
103
52 Existence of Ions and Structure of Salts
108
64 Experiments on Chemical Equilibrium E61 Melting Equilibrium
165
References
170
AcidBase Reactions
173
72 Misconceptions
175
73 Teaching and Learning Suggestions
183
74 Experiments on Acids and Bases
193
References
204
Chapter 8 Redox Reactions
207
81 Misconceptions
209
82 Teaching and Learning Suggestions
217
83 Experiments on Redox Reactions
226
References
231
Further Reading
232
Complex Reactions
235
91 Misconceptions
237
92 Teaching and Learning Suggestions
245
93 Experiments on Complex Reactions E91 Existence of Complex Ions
252
References
259
Chapter 10 Energy
261
101 Misconceptions
262
102 Empirical Research
265
103 Energy and Temperature
269
104 Fuel and Chemical Energy
272
105 Experiments on Energy
279
References
286
List of Experiments
289
Epilogue
292
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