Autonomous Flying Robots: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Micro Aerial Vehicles
Springer Science & Business Media, Sep 15, 2010 - Technology & Engineering - 329 pages
The advance in robotics has boosted the application of autonomous vehicles to perform tedious and risky tasks or to be cost-effective substitutes for their - man counterparts. Based on their working environment, a rough classi cation of the autonomous vehicles would include unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), - manned ground vehicles (UGVs), autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), and autonomous surface vehicles (ASVs). UAVs, UGVs, AUVs, and ASVs are called UVs (unmanned vehicles) nowadays. In recent decades, the development of - manned autonomous vehicles have been of great interest, and different kinds of autonomous vehicles have been studied and developed all over the world. In part- ular, UAVs have many applications in emergency situations; humans often cannot come close to a dangerous natural disaster such as an earthquake, a ood, an active volcano, or a nuclear disaster. Since the development of the rst UAVs, research efforts have been focused on military applications. Recently, however, demand has arisen for UAVs such as aero-robotsand ying robotsthat can be used in emergency situations and in industrial applications. Among the wide variety of UAVs that have been developed, small-scale HUAVs (helicopter-based UAVs) have the ability to take off and land vertically as well as the ability to cruise in ight, but their most importantcapability is hovering. Hoveringat a point enables us to make more eff- tive observations of a target. Furthermore, small-scale HUAVs offer the advantages of low cost and easy operation.
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ˆ ˆ ˆ achieve aircraft algorithm angular rate angular velocity asymptotic stability attitude angle attitude control attitude sensor automation autonomous control autonomous flight autopilot autorotation axis blade calculated camera chapter closed-loop system control input controller design derived developed dynamics error experimental results feedback flight control flight test Flying Robots fuselage gps/ins guidance Gumstix gyro height horizontal implemented induced velocity Kalman filter landing linear main rotor maneuver measurements micro air vehicles mini model predictive control motors navigation system Nonami nonlinear controller onboard optic flow output parameters payload performance pitch angle position control QTW-UAV Quad-Rotor MAVs quadrotor quaternion radio controlled helicopter rangefinder real-time roll angle rotation rotor rotorcraft UAVs servo servomotor shown in Fig small unmanned helicopter speed stability stereo vision take-off target Time[s trajectory tracking transfer function Unmanned Aerial Vehicles vector vision-based visual odometer yaw angle