Modeling Groundwater Flow and Pollution

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Springer Science & Business Media, Sep 30, 1987 - Science - 414 pages
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Groundwater constitutes an important component of many water resource systems, supplying water for domestic use, for industry, and for agriculture. Management of a groundwater system, an aquifer, or a system of aquifers, means making such decisions as to the total quantity of water to be withdrawn annually, the location of wells for pumping and for artificial recharge and their rates, and control conditions at aquifer boundaries. Not less important are decisions related to groundwater qUality. In fact, the quantity and quality problems cannot be separated. In many parts of the world, with the increased withdrawal of ground water, often beyond permissible limits, the quality of groundwater has been continuously deteriorating, causing much concern to both suppliers and users. In recent years, in addition to general groundwater quality aspects, public attention has been focused on groundwater contamination by hazardous industrial wastes, by leachate from landfills, by oil spills, and by agricultural activities such as the use of fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides, and by radioactive waste in repositories located in deep geological formations, to mention some of the most acute contamination sources. In all these cases, management means making decisions to achieve goals without violating specified constraints. In order to enable the planner, or the decision maker, to compare alternative modes of action and to ensure that the constraints are not violated, a tool is needed that will provide information about the response of the system (the aquifer) to various alternatives.
 

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Contents

Introduction
1
12 Management of Groundwater
7
13 Groundwater Modeling
11
14 Continuum Approach to Porous Media
17
15 Horizontal TwoDimensional Modeling of Aquifers
21
16 Objectives and Scope
23
Groundwater Motion
27
22 Aquifer Transmissivity
43
72 Modeling Seawater Intrusion in a Vertical Plane
198
73 Modeling Regional Seawater Intrusion
208
Introduction to Numerical Methods
216
82 Survey of Numerical Methods
217
83 Computer Programming
223
The Finite Difference Method
225
92 Unsteady Flow
233
93 Accuracy and Stability
239

23 Dupuit Assumption
45
Modeling ThreeDimensional Flow
53
32 Mass Storage
56
33 Fundamental Mass Balance Equation
60
34 Initial and Boundary Conditions
65
35 Complete Statement of Mathematical Flow Model
76
36 Modeling Soil Displacement
78
Modeling TwoDimensional Flow in Aquifers
85
42 Fundamental Continuity Equations
88
43 Initial and Boundary Conditions
102
44 Complete Statement of Aquifer Flow Model
104
45 Regional Model for Land Subsidence
105
46 Streamlines and Stream Function
114
Modeling Flow in the Unsaturated Zone
123
52 Motion Equations
138
53 Balance Equations
145
54 Initial and Boundary Conditions
149
55 Complete Statement of Unsaturated Flow Model
152
Modeling Groundwater Pollution
153
61 Hydrodynamic Dispersion
155
62 Advective Dispersive and Diffusive Fluxes
159
63 Balance Equation for a Pollutant
167
64 Initial and Boundary Conditions
179
65 Complete Statement of Pollution Model
184
66 Pollution Transport by Advection Only
186
67 Macrodispersion
190
Modeling Seawater Intrusion
196
94 Generalizations
242
The Finite Element Method
247
102 Steady Flow in a Confined Aquifer
257
103 Steady Flow with Infiltration and Leakage
268
104 Steady Flow through a Dam
272
105 Unsteady Flow in an Aquifer
276
106 Generalizations
281
Transport by Advection
285
112 SemiAnalytic Solution
286
113 System of Wells in an Infinite Field
288
114 System of Wells in an Infinite Strip
296
115 Numerical Solution in Terms of the Piezometric Head
299
116 Numerical Solution in Terms of the Stream Function
300
117 Tracing Particles Along a Stream Line
311
Transport by Advection and Dispersion
316
122 Numerical Dispersion
323
123 A Finite Element Model for TwoDimensional Problems
326
124 Random Walk Model
336
Numerical Modeling of Seawater Intrusion
344
132 Basic Equations for a Regional Model of Seawater Intrusion
351
133 Finite Element Model for Regional Interface Problems
355
Solution of Linear Equations
364
References
381
Problems
386
Index of Subjects
409
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Page iii - JACOB BEAR Albert and Anne Mansfield Chair in Water Resources Technion - Israel Institute of Technology Haifa 32000, Israel YEHUDA BACHMAT Hydrological Service, Jerusalem 91060, Israel.

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