## Modeling investment uncertainty in the costs of global CO2 emission policy |

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7rtn ADV-LC AiXi algorithm approximation Atxt Birge Bt-iXt-i carbon rights carbon tax chapter compact sets computing concave function constraint consumption convex cost Dantzig decision variables decomposition depr deterministic developed dissertation dual variables EMV solution energy technologies ETA-MACRO expected value factor inputs factor utilization Figure finite number Global 2100 model HN and EMV impact Lemma linear response function lower bounding technique Manne and Richels mathematical program mean value solution mean value strategy monotonically increasing concave multistage stochastic NE-BAK node nonlinear nonlinear program number of iterations objective function optimal hedging strategy optimal solution original problem outer linearization output payback paybackr)t perfect information period policy decisions probability space random parameters random right hand random variable recourse function region response function method result returns on investment right hand side solving stochastic linear programs stochastic program stochastic solution subproblem supporting hyperplane synthetic fuels trade in carbon upper bound xt-i