Mongolian is the principal language spoken by some five million ethnic Mongols living in Outer and Inner Mongolia, as well as in adjacent parts of Russia and China. The spoken language is divided into a number of mutually intelligible dialects, while for writing two separate written languages are used: Cyrillic Khalkha in Outer Mongolia (the Republic of Mongolia) and Written Mongol in Inner Mongolia (P. R. China). In this grammatical description, the focus is on the standard varieties of the spoken language, as used in broadcasting, education, and everyday casual speech. The dialectology of the language, and its background as a member of the Mongolic language family, are also dicussed. Mongolian is an agglutinating language with a well-developed suffixal morphology. In the areal framework, the language is a typical member of the trans-Eurasian Ural-Altaic complex with features such as vowel harmony, verb-final sentence structure, and complex chains of non-finite verbal phrases.
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adjectival adjectives adnominal adverbal analysed attested bai-n basic be-DUR Buryat Chakhar Chinese clausal clause clitics clusters combined Common Mongolic complex connected consonant constructions converb copula corresponding Cyrillic Khalkha dative derivational deverbal diachronic diphthong distinction element EMPH enclitic examples existential clause expressed finite forms front vowel function genitive glide headword high rounded inflectional Inner Mongolian INSTR interrogative involve Khorchin labial lexical long vowels marked marker modal modifier Mongolic languages monophthongs morpheme morphological nasal stem negation non-initial syllables normally nouns obstruent ofthe Oirat Outer Mongolia palatal palatalized consonant paradigm participle particles person phonemic phonological plural position POSS postpositions privative pronominal pronouns reduced vowel reflexive regular relativization s/he Sechenbaatar segment semantic sequence SG1P short vowels spatials stem types stems ending substantival suffix synchronically syntactic tion tive Ulan Bator unmarked unrounded unstable nasal velar nasal verb verbal vowel harmony word Written Mongol