Motivation: theories and principles
This experimentally-oriented book provides a critical examination of research and theory with a topical approach. It covers a broad range of motivational concepts from both human and animal theory and research, with an emphasis on the biological bases of motivation. Chapter topics include the nature of motivation theory; species-specific behaviors; eating and taste; thirst, temperature regulation, addiction, and reproduction; drive and activation; rewards as both reinforcers and incentives; escape, fear, avoidance, and punishment; frustration, anxiety, stress, and coping; aggression and altruism; personality and individual differences; attitudes and cognitive consistency; interpersonal attraction; and applications of motivation theory. For individuals interested in the motivation of humans and animals.
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BEHAVIOR THEORY ANALYSES
Emotional Foundations of Motivation
BIOLOGICAL ANALYSES OF MOTIVATION
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activation theory activity aggressive animals anxiety approach areas argued associated attribution theory aversive behavior brain classical conditioning cognitive complex concept conditioned stimuli consummatory correlated cues defined definition dissonance drinking drive reduction drive stimuli drive theory eating effect emotion energize environmental example experiment experimental external fear female Figure food deprivation frustration function genetic goal box heart rate Hull's humans hunger hungry hypothalamic hypothesis important incentive motivation increase individual instinct internal intervening variable involved irrelevant drive learning lesions limbic system male measures mechanism negative nervous system neural normal NREM occur opponent process organism outcome particular percent performance person physiological predicted preference problem produce Psychology punishment rats reduced REM sleep reward running satiated secondary reinforcer sexual shock situation sleep slides social specific stimulus theory subjects sucrose sympathetic nervous system taste thirst tion Tolman water deprivation