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THE ARABIAN BACKGROUND
MUHAMMADS EARLY LIFE AND
THE PRIMARY MESSAGE
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Abd Shams Abdallah Abū Abyssinia accepted acts al-Harith al-Muttalib Amir appears Arabs Asad aspect Badr Bakr believed Bell bless called chief Christian clan conception confederates considered criticism distinction doubtless early economic fact father followed give given hand Hāshim Hijrah human ideas implied important individual influence interested Islam judgement Last later leaders leading least Makhzūm material matter mean Mecca Medina mention Messenger moral Muḥammad Muslims names nature nomadic opposition original pagans passages perhaps period Persian persons political position possible present preserve presumably probably prophet protection question Qur'ān Quraysh reason references regarded relations religion religious revelation Sa'd seems sense sources speak story suggest taken thought tion took trade tradition tribe verses vision wealth Western worship