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THE ARABIAN BACKGROUND
THE PRIMARY MESSAGE
THE FIRST MUSLIMS
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Abd Shams Abdallāh Abū Abyssinia accepted acts al-Harith al-Muttalib Amir appears Arabs Asad aspect Badr Bakr belief bless called certainly chief Christian clan conception confederates criticism distinction doubtless early economic fact father followed give given hand Hāshim Hijrah human ideas implied important individual influence interested Islam judgement Last later leaders leading least Makhzūm material matter mean Mecca Medina mention Messenger moral Muḥammad Muslims names nature nomadic opposition original pagans passages perhaps period Persian persons political position possible present preserve presumably probably prophet protection question Qur'ān Quraysh reason references regarded relations religion religious revelation Sa'd seems sense sources speak story suggest taken thee thought tion took trade tradition tribe verses vision wealth Western worship