Multifunctional Barriers for Flexible Structure: Textile, Leather and Paper

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Sophie Duquesne, Carole Magniez, Giovanni Camino
Springer Science & Business Media, Aug 29, 2007 - Technology & Engineering - 292 pages
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This is the first complete overview of the present state of the art of flexible barrier materials such as textile, paper and leather, including methods for barrier evaluation. It will be of interest to readers in industries, consumers, and members of the scientific community. The scope of the field is clearly delineated here for the first time, and it deals with a number of specific topics such as barrier to fire and antibacterial properties.

 

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Contents

85 Web Conversion and Finishing
148
861 Regularity and Homogeneity of Materials
149
865 Mechanical Performances
150
Mechanical Models and Actuation Technologies for Active Fabrics A Brief Survey of the State of the Art
151
92 Knitted Fabrics
152
93 Mechanical Behaviour of WeftKnitted Fabrics
153
933 Potential Energy as an Approach to Describe NonLinear Mechanical Properties of Fabrics
156
94 Different Approaches to Describe the Mechanical Behaviour of WeftKnitted Fabrics
159

21 Introduction
24
Application of Effective Agents During Melt Spinning
25
224 Use of Silver as an Antimicrobial Agent in Textile Functionalisation
26
226 Antimicrobial Effect
27
25 Antimicrobial Peptides
29
261 Antimicrobial Finishing Methodologies
30
262 Antimicrobial Polymers and Their Effect
31
27 Chitin and Chitosan Derivatives as Antimicrobial Agents
34
271 Synthesis of Chitin Derivatives as Antimicrobial Agents for Textiles
35
28 Applications
36
29 Future Prospects
37
Intumescent FlameRetardant Treatments for Flexible Barriers
39
32 Mechanisms of Intumescence
41
33 FlameRetarded Natural Fibers
43
34 FlameRetarded Synthetic Fibers
51
342 Polypropylene
53
343 Polyamide
57
35 Conclusion
58
References
59
Protection Against Electrostatic and Electromagnetic Phenomena
63
412 Fundamental Principles of Electrostatics
64
413 Electrostatic Charging and Textile Type Materials
67
414 Charging Mechanisms in Textiles
68
415 Charge Dissipation Mechanisms of Textiles
69
416 Electrostatic Control Fabrics and Garments
71
417 Review of Techniques on Fibrous Materials for Protection Against Electrostatic Discharge
72
42 Protection Against Electromagnetic Phenomena
74
422 Basic Electromagnetic Principles
75
423 Uniform Plane Waves
77
424 Electromagnetic Shielding
78
425 Flexible Electromagnetic Shields
81
References
82
FireRetardant Mechanisms in Polymer NanoComposite Materials
87
52 Overview of Commercially Available NanoFillers
88
522 Two Dimension Particles
89
523 One Dimension Particles
91
524 Synthetic 3D or 2D NanoFillers
93
54 Combustion Behaviour of Polymer NanoComposites
95
55 Mechanism of NanoComposites Combustion
97
552 Charring
101
56 FireRetardant NanoComposites
103
57 Conclusions
105
Cold Plasma Technologies for Surface Modification and Thin Film Deposition
109
62 Cold Plasma Technology
110
63 Applications of Cold Plasma Technology
112
632 PlasmaAssisted Thin Films Deposition
113
64 Conclusions
121
References
122
NanoFibres for Filter Materials
125
71 Introduction
126
72 Principle of Electrospinning
127
721 Practical Electrospinning
129
722 NanoFibres Produced by Electrospinning form Polymer Solutions or Melts
130
723 Electrospraying
131
73 Application of NanoFibres or NanoWebs as Filter Media
134
74 New Developments in Electrospinning
135
References
136
The Development of NonWovens
139
82 Raw Materials for NonWovens
140
822 Other Raw Materials
142
831 Drylaid Technologies
143
832 Spunlaid and Meltblown Technologies
144
833 Other Technologies
146
942 A Theoretical Analysis Based on the Elastic Theory
160
95 Woven Fabrics with Barrier Effect
162
96 Technologies for Actuation of Fabrics
163
961 Shape Memory Alloys
164
962 Shape Memory Polymers
165
963 Future Developments
166
97 Conclusions
167
References
168
Pyrolysis Modelling Within CFD Codes
170
102 Description of Model
172
103 Additional Changes or Additions in the Model
175
1042 Influence of Heat of Pyrolysis on the Results
176
1044 Influence of the Char Density on the Results
178
1047 Influence of the Number of Iterations and Thickness of Numerical Strips on the Results
179
1048 Influence of Ignition Temperature for NonCharring Materials
180
1049 Final Evaluation and Procedure to Define Material Parameters
182
105 Verification of the Physical Flame Spread
184
1052 Verification with a StandAlone Flame Spread Model
186
106 Conclusion
189
LifeCycle Assessment Including Fires FireLCA
191
The Basic Concept
192
An Overview
195
1131 The Risk Assessment Approach
196
114 FireLCA Guidelines
198
1142 Special Fire Considerations
201
1143 Statistical Fire Model
202
1144 Replacement of Burned Materials
204
1145 Data Inventory
205
1146 Competences Needed to Conduct a FireLCA Analysis
208
116 Computer Modelling Methods
210
1171 Background Minimisation
211
118 Limitations
212
Modelling of Euroclass Test Results by Means of the Cone Calorimeter
214
1211 Principles of Prediction Model
216
1213 Criteria for Flame Spread
218
1214 Calculation of Heat Release Rate
219
122 Sensitivity Study of Model
220
1222 Influence of Backing Board
221
123 Guidance and Description Testing Protocol
222
124 Comparison and Discussion of Simulation Results
224
125 Conclusions
226
Characterisation of Barrier Effects in Footwear
229
Leather
231
1321 Leather Tanning
232
1323 Flame Resistance Barrier Effect
236
1324 MicroOrganisms Resistance Barrier Effect
244
133 Rubber Outsoles
247
1332 Test Methods
248
134 Complete Footwear
254
1342 Flame Resistance
259
1344 Chemical and MicroOrganism Resistance Barrier Effect
262
1345 Other
265
Filtration Technologies in the Automotive Industry
269
1413 Mechanisms of Capture
272
142 Filtration Technologies
276
1422 Technical Features of a Fibrous Medium
280
1423 Filtration Process
281
1424 Filtration Efficiency
283
Standards and Benches
285
144 Conclusion
288
Index
289
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