Multimedia Learning

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Cambridge University Press, Apr 23, 2001 - Psychology - 210 pages
10 Reviews
For hundreds of years verbal messages have been the primary means of explaining ideas to learners. Although verbal learning offers a powerful tool for humans, this book explores ways of going beyond the purely verbal. An alternative to purely verbal presentations is to use multimedia presentations in which people learn from both words and pictures--a situation the author calls multimedia learning. Multimedia encyclopedias have become the latest addition to students' reference tools, and the world wide web is full of messages that combine words and pictures. This book summarizes ten years of research aimed at realizing the promise of multimedia learning.
 

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Book Review: Multimedia Learning by Richard Mayer
By: Donald Hawkins
Classroom presentations have evolved from overhead projectors to multimedia presentations. It would not be difficult to
identify a modern student who has encountered a negative experience with poor Powerpoint presentations. Common signs of a poor presentation include the use of paragraphs of text populating each slide. The assumption the teacher makes, is because the content is presented on the slide, then the students should be ingesting the learning. To accompany this poor style of presentation, the teacher will verbally recite each slide, with the purpose of reinforcing the learning.
These are all symptoms of poor use of multimedia learning. There are several major academic texts that present empirical research toward improving the fundamental use of multimedia for the use of learning. Richard Mayer’s Multimedia Learning presents scientific explanations for professors, teachers and trainers who create, design and deliver various forms of multimedia learning. The major question proposed is, Do people learn better when using multimedia in contrast to simple written text. Mayer’s cognitive theory specifically ascribes to a “Dual Channel Assumption” which basically assumes that humans have separate information processing channels for verbal and pictorial information. Students are limited in the amount of visual and auditory information that can be understood and retained. Mayer encourages teachers to change the way they think and teach with multimedia technology.
While there are many other books that reference this concept, Mayer’s work is a staple within the academic world of learning. While Mayer presents fundamental concepts that would improve every teachers use of multimedia, he also backs up his statements with data extracted directly from the classroom. This is a highly recommended text for teachers, specialists, designers and evaluators of seeking to apply effective multimedia technology in a wide variety of learning environments.
 

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This is a classic in the field of instructional design. It is based on a series of empirical studies from the 1990s. Instructional design researchers should consider this and other similar works by Richard Mayer and his colleagues. A second edition of this classic was published in 2009.

Contents

The Promise of Multimedia Learning
1
What Is Multimedia?
2
The Case for Multimedia Learning
3
Three Views of Multimedia Learning
5
Two Views of Multimedia Messages
8
Two Metaphors of Multimedia Learning
12
Three Kinds of Multimedia Learning Outcomes
15
Two Kinds of Active Learning
17
Research on Temporal Contiguity
102
Implications
111
Coherence Principle
113
Student Learning is Hurt When Interesting but Irrelevant Words and Pictures Are Added to a Multimedia Presentation
115
Student Learning is Hurt When Interesting but Irrelevant Sounds and Music Are Added to a Multimedia Presentation
123
Student Learning is Improved When Unneeded Words Are Eliminated from a Multimedia Presentation
128
Implications
132
Modality Principle
134

Multimedia Instructional Messages
21
How Lightning Storms Develop
22
How Brakes Work
30
How Pumps Work
35
Conclusion
39
A Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning
41
Three Assumptions of a Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning
42
Five Steps in a Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning
53
Examples of How Three Kinds of Presented Materials Are Processed
58
Conclusion
61
Multimedia Principle
63
Introduction
64
Research on Multimedia
72
Spatial Contiguity Principle
81
Introduction
82
Research on Spatial Contiguity
88
Implications
93
Temporal Contiguity Principle
96
Introduction
97
Introduction
135
Research on Modality
141
Implications
144
Redundancy Principle
147
Research on Redundancy
154
Implications
157
Individual Differences Principle
161
Questions about Multimedia Learning
162
Role of Learners Existing Knowledge
163
Role of Learners Spatial Ability
172
Implications
179
Principles of Multimedia Design
183
Five Questions About Multimedia
186
The Contributions and Challenges of Research on Multimedia Learning
192
REFERENCES
195
AUTHOR INDEX
203
SUBJECT INDEX
207
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