Mutualism: Ants and their Insect Partners
A mutualism is an interaction between individuals of two different species of organism in which both benefit from the association. With a focus on mutualisms between ants and aphids, coccids, membracids and lycaenids, this volume provides a detailed account of the many different facets of mutualisms. Mutualistic interactions not only affect the two partners, but can also have consequences for higher levels of organization. By linking theory to case studies, the authors present an integrated account of processes and patterns of mutualistic interactions at different levels of organisation, from individuals to communities to ecosystems. Interactions between ants and their insect partners and their outcomes are explained from a resource-based, cost-benefit perspective. Covering a fascinating and growing subject in modern ecology, this book will be of interest to community and evolutionary ecologists and entomologists, at both research and graduate student level.
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abundance Addicott Allee effect ant attendance ant-attended aphid species aphids aphids and ants associations with ants attended aphids behaviour Biology capita coccids colonies competition-colonization trade-off competition–colonization consequence costs and benefits density dependent dispersal Dixon effects EFNs Entomology environmental environments evolution example exploitation Facultative mutualists facultative myrmecophiles feeding females Fiedler fitness foraging growth rates habitat herbivores homopterans honeydew host plant important increase indirect individuals insect partners interac interactions between ants interspecific isocline Kindlmann larvae life-history lycaenid butterflies lycaenids membracids metacommunity metapopulation models mutualisms between ants mutualistic associations mutualistic interactions mutualistic relationships myrmecophiles Myrmica natural enemies nectar negative nest obligate myrmecophiles Oecologia organisms outcome parasitism parasitoids partners of ants patches phloem phytophagous plant quality population dynamics potential predators prey produce relative reproduction scale scale insects spatial species of aphids Stadler strategy structure studies suggests temporal theory tion trade-offs traits treehoppers trophic trophic levels unattended