Nanomedicine Design of Particles, Sensors, Motors, Implants, Robots, and Devices

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Artech House, 2009 - Nanomedicine - 511 pages
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This forward-looking resource outlines the extraordinary new tools that are becoming available in nanomedicine. The book presents an integrated set of perspectives that describe where we are now and where we should be headed to put nanomedicine devices in to applications as quickly as possible, including consideration of the possible dangers of nanomedicine. Written by some of the most innovative minds in medicine and engineering, this unique volume helps you understand cutting-edge and futuristic areas of research that can have tremendous payoff in terms of improving human health. You find insightful discussions on nanostructured intelligent materials and devices that are considered technically feasible and that have a high potential to produce advances in medicine in the near future.
 

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Contents

952 Multifunctionality of Magnetic Nanotubes
263
954 Biomedical Applications
265
96 Magnetic Biosensors
267
962 MagnetoresistanceBased Sensors
270
963 HallEffect Sensors
271
964 Sensors Detecting Magnetic Relaxations
272
965 Sensors Detecting Ferrofluid Susceptibility
275
97 Magnetic Biochips
276

162 Nanorobot Factory
16
163 Biological Nanorobots
17
18 Integration of Nanodevices in the Body
18
19 Safety and Ethical Implications of Nanomedicine
19
110 Efficiently Working Together Using Shared Resources
20
111 Chapter Summary and Conclusions
21
Problems
22
Nanoscale Materials and Particles
25
Synthesis of Carbon Nanotube Materials for Biomedical Applications
27
22 Synthesis of Long Carbon Nanotube Arrays
29
23 Characterization of CNT Arrays
31
24 Patterned CNT Arrays
32
26 Spinning Carbon Nanotubes into Thread
35
261 Mechanics of Array Spinning
36
263 Catalyst and Substrates for Growing of Spinable CNT Arrays
38
265 Pulling Ribbon from CNT Arrays
40
266 PostTreatment of the CNT Thread
42
27 Mechanical and Electrical Characterization of CNT Thread
43
273 Temperature Dependence of the CNT Thread Resistance
44
274 Electrical Properties of CNT Ribbon
46
282 Handling CNT Bundles
47
29 Carbon Nanotube Threads in Wireless Biomedical Sensor Applications
49
293 Future Medical Application of the CNT Thread Antenna
50
210 Applications of CNT Materials in Nanomedicine
51
2102 Carbon Nanotube Actuators
52
2103 Carbon Nanotube Materials as Scaffolds for Supporting Directional Neurite Growth
53
211 Summary and Conclusions
54
Acknowledgments
55
Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes as Multimodal Drug Delivery Systems for Targeted Cancer Therapy
61
312 PresentDay Cancer Treatment and Associated Problems
62
313 A Brief Insight into Targeting Strategies
63
A Versatile Material
65
322 Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes
67
323 Purification of Carbon Nanotubes
69
324 Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes for Biomedical Applications
70
33 Carbon Nanotubes as Nanovectors for Multimodal Drug Delivery
71
332 Carbon Nanotube Drug Delivery Systems Based on Filling of the Inner Cavity
77
34 Challenges and Future Prospects
80
342 In Vivo Biodistribution of Carbon Nanotubes
84
35 Conclusion
85
Acknowledgments
86
Composite Nanoparticles for Cancer Imaging and Therapy Engineering Surface Composition and Shape
95
412 Nanodevices
97
413 Principles of Nanodevice Design
98
422 Engineering Size Charge and Surface Functionality of PAMAM Dendrimers
99
Engineering Composition
105
Engineering Shape
109
43 Application Examples of Nanodevices
113
432 Application Examples of Dendrimer Nanodevices
116
433 Perspectives on Biomedical Applications of Shaped Nanocrystals
117
44 Summary
118
References
120
ThreeDimensional Lithographically Structured SelfAssembled Biomedical Devices
127
52 Basics of Lithographic Fabrication
130
53 The Need for ThreeDimensional Biomedical Devices
132
54 Present Day Lithographically Structured Biomedical Devices
134
541 Drug Delivery Devices
135
543 Implantable Organic Electronic Devices
137
545 Soft and Wet 3D Devices
138
546 Tissue ScaffoldsGrowing Live Devices
139
55 Combination of Lithography and SelfAssembly to Construct 3D Devices
140
552 Multilayer Thin Film Stress for 3D Self Assembly
145
554 Microscale Tetherless Gripper Chemically Triggered Microsurgical Tools
147
56 Conclusions
148
Acknowledgments
150
Selected Bibliography
155
Nanosized Magnetite for Biomedical Applications
157
62 Crystalline Structure
158
622 Structural Characteristics of Nanoparticles
160
63 Nanosized Magnetism
163
632 Experimental Data
171
64 Magnetic Particles and Biomedical Applications
175
642 Biomedical Applications of Magnetic SingleDomain Particles
177
65 Conclusions
183
Problems
185
Progress in the Use of Aligned Carbon Nanotubes to Support Neuronal Attachment and Directional Neurite Growth
189
712 Factors That Inhibit or Stimulate Axonal Regeneration
190
714 Artificial Substrates Can Promote Axonal Regeneration
192
715 Carbon Nanotubes and Axonal Regeneration
193
716 Aligned Carbon Nanotubes as a Potential Scaffold for Axonal Regeneration
194
717 CNT Cytotoxicity
195
721 Preparation of CNTs
196
73 Future Directions and Challenges
201
Problems
202
Acknowledgments
203
RNA RingGeared Bacteriophage phi29 DNA Packaging Nanomotor for Nanotechnology and Gene Delivery
211
82 Components Related to the phi29 DNA Packaging Motor
212
822 phi29 Procapsid
213
823 Gp16
214
824 DNAgp3
215
84 Structure of pRNA
216
85 Mechanism of the phi29 Motor Function
217
852 ATP Hydrolysis Provides the Driving Force of the phi29 DNA Packaging Motor
219
854 Single Molecule Approaches to Elucidate Motor Mechanism
221
86 Potential Applications of the phi29 Motor in Nanotechnology and Gene Therapy
222
862 Connector Arrays for Nanotechnology
224
863 Polyvalent Gene Delivery System Using Phi29 pRNA
225
864 Engineered phi 29 Connectors as Therapeutic Tools
226
866 The DNAPackaging Motor as a DNASequencing Apparatus or Molecular Sorter
227
References
228
Electronic Biomedical Devices
237
Magnetic Nanomaterials Nanotubes and Nanomedicine
239
912 Magnetic Nanomaterials
241
913 Magnetic Nanomedicine
242
92 Physical Background for Magnetic Nanomedicine
243
923 Fundamentals of Nanomagentism
244
93 Magnetic Nanoparticles
247
932 Synthesis Techniques
248
933 Functionalization Techniques
251
934 Biomedical Applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles
252
94 Magnetic Nanowires
254
943 Functionalization of Magnetic Nanowires
256
944 Biomecial Applications of Magnetic Nanowires
257
95 Magnetic Nanotubes
260
Problems
277
Mobile Microscopic Sensors for In Vivo Diagnostics
285
102 Robot Capabilities and Environment
287
1022 Communication
289
Passive and Active
290
1024 Computation
291
1025 Power
292
104 Evaluating Robot Behaviors
294
1042 Modeling Multiple Physical Effects
296
1043 Validation Experiments
300
1051 Diagnostic Task Environment
301
1052 Control
302
1053 Detection Performance
303
1054 Using the Diagnostic Information
304
106 Discussion
305
Problems
307
References
308
Microcantilever Biomedical Sensors
313
112 Value of Biosensors in Cancer Diagnostics and Prognostication
315
113 Cantilever Preparation
316
1141 Detection of PSA
317
115 Implantable Sensors
318
116 Conclusion
319
Problems
321
Nanoimaging and InBody Nanostructured Devices for Diagnostics and Therapeutics
325
122 Technology for In Vivo Sensing
326
1222 Nanoimaging Nanosensing and Intermolecular Interactions
328
1223 Parallel Arrays of Sensors to Detect Complementary Interactions
333
123 InBody Nanosensors and Nanodevices
336
1231 Edema Sensor
338
1232 Remote Controlled Magnetically Navigated Robot Capsule
341
1233 Mobile Microscopic Robots
343
124 Conclusions
344
References
345
Microfabricated Devices for Detecting Circulating Tumor Cells in Cancer Patient Blood Samples
347
132 Technical Challenge
348
133 Techniques for Detecting CTC in Blood
349
1332 Microfabricated Devices
352
134 Clinical Value of CTC Capture and Characterization
356
135 Cancer Stem Cells and Metastasis
358
137 Conclusion
359
References
360
Tiny Machines
365
Medical Nanorobotics The LongTerm Goal for Nanomedicine
367
142 From Nanoparticles to Nanorobots
368
143 Diamondoid Materials in Nanorobotics
371
144 Early Steps Toward Diamondoid Molecular Manufacturing
373
145 Massive Parallelism Enables Practical Molecular Manufacturing
378
146 Examples of Diamondoid Medical Nanorobots
379
147 An Ideal Nanorobotic Pharmaceutical Delivery Vehicle
382
148 Conclusion
387
References
388
Potential Strategies for Advanced Nanomedical Device Ingress and Egress Natation Mobility and Navigation
393
152 Potential Nanodevice Ingress Strategies
394
1522 Aerosol Inhalation and Traversing the BloodBrain Barrier BBB
396
1523 Transdermal Patch Diffusive Gel or EyeEar Drops
397
153 Molecular Motors
398
1531 Powering Molecular Motors
399
154 Constraints on Molecular Motors
400
1541 Brownian Motion
401
1542 Brownian Shuttles
402
155 Traversing the Circulatory System
403
156 Traversing the Lymphatic System
406
158 Nanometric Biomimetic Analogs for Potential Nanomedical Device Motility and Ambulatory Movement
407
1581 Cilia and Flagella
408
1582 Myosin and Actin
410
159 Nanodevice Aqueous Motility
411
1592 Nanoscale Earthworm Analog
412
Behavior and Potential for Propulsion
413
15101 DNA Robot
414
15102 Nanowalker
415
1512 Nanodevice Egress Strategies
416
1513 Conclusion
417
References
418
Nanoscale Mechanics for Medicine
423
1622 Nanotube Biocompatibility
424
163 Nanometer Propulsion
426
1632 Linear Nanomotors
427
1633 SurfaceTensionDriven Nanomotors
429
164 Nanomechanical Radios and Sensors
430
1642 Nanotube Radio Transmitter
433
1643 Nanomechanical Mass Sensing
434
Problems
436
Biological Integration and Characterization
439
Integration of Manmade Nanostructures with Biological Systems Diagnosis of Cancer Using Semiconductor QuantumDot Biomolecule Complexes
441
172 Semiconductor Quantum Dots and Their Adaptation for Nanodiagnostics
442
173 Semiconductor Quantum Dots as Applied to the Study of Cellular Properties
447
174 SemiconductorQuantumDotsBiomolecule Complexes Used in the Study of Carcinogenic Cells and in Cancer Diagnosis
450
175 Conclusion
453
Acknowledgments
454
TwoPhoton Microscopy for In Vivo Analysis of Neural and Secretory Activities
459
182 Features of TwoPhoton Excited Fluorescence Microscopy
460
1821 Deep and Benign Observations
462
1822 Replacement for Ultraviolet Sources
463
1823 Avoiding SelfShielding Effects and Compensating for Photobleaching
464
183 Overview of the Optical System
465
184 In Vivo Imaging of the Cerebral Neocortex
467
185 Imaging of Secretory Functions
469
186 Future Possibilities
470
Problems
472
Nanoscale Engineering of Electrodes Biosensors and Protein Surfaces
475
192 Carbon Nanotube Electrode and Biosensor Development
476
1923 Individual Carbon Nanotube Electrode
479
1924 Carbon Nanotube Array Biosensor
480
1925 Initial Development of a CNT Array Electrode for Prostate Cancer Cell Detection
481
193 New Polymer Synthesis for High Throughput Experimental Design
484
1932 Photolithography for Protein Patterning
485
1933 Protein Patterning
486
194 Summary and Conclusions
487
References
488
About the Editors
491
List of Contributors
493
Index
497
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