Nanoreactor Engineering for Life Sciences and Medicine

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Artech House, 2008 - Bioreactors - 283 pages
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This trail-blazing volume covers nanoreactor essentials, including a review of synthetic procedures and materials used to develop various nanoreactor configurations. It explores nanoreactor theory and design, highlighting the fundamental differences between molecular events in macroscale and nanoscale reactors. The book offers a clear look at the dominating role of interfaces and how they affect nanoreactor properties and processes. Moreover, it shows how chemical reaction engineering can be applied in analyzing thermodynamics of self-assembly, colloidal stability, reaction kinetics and stochastic effects, and nanoreactor optimization. The book explores integrated nanoreactor systems, covering a theoretical treatment of how nanoreactors can be mobilized inside cells and tissues or as nanostructured films or coatings. Supported by over 100 diagrams and 250 equations, this definitive resource spotlights 14 bionanoreactor systems in development, including organic polymers, vesicles, polymer-stabilized liposomes, artificial protein cages, stem cells, DNA architectures, and others.
 

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Contents

Introduction to Nanoreactor Technology
1
12 Examples of Nanoreactor Systems
5
122 Molecular Organic Nanoreactors
7
124 Micelle Vesicles and NanoMicroMini Emulsions
15
125 Porous Macroscopic Solids
20
13 Conclusions
22
References
23
Miniemulsion Droplets as Nanoreactors
47
49 Bioactive Glasses for Tissue Engineering
154
410 Summary
155
References
157
A Novel Nanoreactorfor Biosensing
161
52 Basic Design of a Nanoreactor for ROS Detection
162
524 A Kinetics Model of Nanoreactor Chemiluminescence and Fluorescence
166
53 Synthesis of a Nanoreactor
168
532 Encapsulation of the Reactants in Liposomes
169

21 Different Kinds of Polymerization in the Nanoreactors
49
212 Controlled FreeRadical Miniemulsion Polymerization
53
213 Anionic Polymerization
56
214 Cationic Polymerization
57
215 Enzymatic Polymerization
58
217 Catalytic Polymerization
59
218 Polyaddition Reaction
60
219 Polycondensation Reaction
61
22 Formation of Nanocapsules
62
222 Encapsulation of Hydrophobic Molecules
64
223 Direct Generation of Polymer Capsules and Hollow Particles
66
224 Encapsulation of Hydrophobic Liquids
67
225 Encapsulation of Hydrophilic Liquids by Interfacial Reaction
69
226 Encapsulation of Hydrophilic Components by Nanoprecipitation
70
23 Crystallization in Miniemulsion Droplets
71
24 Conclusion
73
Transport Phenomena and Chemical Reactions in Nanoscale Surfactant Networks
81
32 Construction Shape Transformations and Structural Modifications of Phospholipid NanotubeVesicle Networks
83
322 SelfAssembly of Vesicular Systems
84
323 Lipid Nanotubes
86
324 NanotubeVesicle Networks Forced Shape Transitions and Structural SelfOrganization
87
325 Membrane Biofunctionalization of Liposomes and VesicleCell Hybrids
91
326 Internal Volume Functionalization and Compartmentalization of NanotubeVesicle Networks
94
33 Transport Phenomena in NanotubeVesicle Networks
96
331 Mass Transport and Mixing in NanotubeVesicle Networks
97
332 Transport by Diffusion
99
333 TensionControlled Marangoni Lipid Flow and Intratubular Liquid Flow in Nanotubes
102
334 Electrophoretic Transport
104
335 Solution Mixingin Inflated Vesicles through a Nanotube
105
34 Chemical Reactions in NanotubeVesicle Networks
106
341 DiffusionControlled Reactions in Confined Spaces
107
342 Chemical Transformations in Individual Vesicles
112
343 Enzymatic Reactions in NanotubeVesicle Networks
114
344 Controlled Initiation of Enzymatic Reactions
115
345 Control of Enzymatic Reactions by Network Architecture
117
35 Summary and Outlook
122
Selected Bibliography
124
Ordered Mesoporous Materials
133
42 The Mechanism of SelfAssembly of Mesoporous Materials
135
43 Functionalization of the Pore Walls
139
44 Controlling the Mesopore Diameter
140
45 Characterization
141
46 Protein Adsorption and Enzyme Activity
143
47 Morphogenesis of Nano and Microparticles
147
48 Drug Delivery
151
533 SelfAssembly of Calcium Phosphate Shells over the Liposomes and Nanoreactor Stabilization with CEPA
170
54 Characterization of a Synthesized Nanoreactor
171
542 Internal Structure of the Calcium Phosphate Shell
173
55 Detection of ROS with the Nanoreactor
174
552 TimeResolved Luminescence of Luminol in Solution and Inside Nanoreactors
175
553 Spectrophotometric Chemiluminescence and Fluorescence Analyses Show That RET Is Significantly Enhanced in Nanoreactors
176
554 The RET Takes Place Inside Nanoreactors
177
56 Reactive Oxygen Species ROS and Diseases
178
562 Conventional Methods of ROS Detection Are Cumbersome and Often Error Ridden Due to the Influence of Compounds Found in the Body
179
57 Conclusions
180
References
181
Surface Nanoreactors for Efficient Catalysis of Hydrolytic Reactions
187
611 EmulsionBased Surface Nanoreactors
191
612 PolymerBased Surface Nanoreactors Case of Polymer Aggregates
195
613 PolymerBased Surface Nanoreactors Case of Polymer Globules
199
62 Conclusion
205
Acknowledgements
206
References
207
Nanoreactors for Enzyme Therapy
209
72 Enzyme Therapy
210
721 Intravenous Administration and Chemical Modification of Enzymes for Therapeutic Use
212
722 Antibody and Viral Vector Targeting of Enzyme Therapies
214
723 Microreactor Immobilization of Enzyme Therapies
215
724 Nanoreactor Immobilization of Enzyme Therapies
217
73 Summary
223
Nanoractors in Stem Cell Research
229
81 Stem Cells Are a Crucial Cell Population in Animal and Human Organisms
230
82 Stem Cells as Nanoreactors
232
Definition of the Hematopoetic Stem Cell
233
84 New Stem Cell Types
236
841 Mesenchymal Stem Cells MSC
238
85 NanoreactorsNanoparticles and Mammalian Stem Cells
240
852 Components of Nanodevices to Be Considered in Affecting Stem Cell Functions
241
853 Synthesis of Nanoreactors and Nanoparticles for Use in Stem Cell Biology and Therapy
243
854 Polymers and Surface Modifications Used for Applications in Mammalian Cells and Medical Applications
244
856 Diagnostic Use of Nanotechnology in Stem Cell Biology
246
857 Therapeutic Options of Nanoreactors and Nanoparticles in Stem Cell Transplantion
250
858 Enhancing Effectiveness of Nanoparticles and Nanoreactors in Human Stem Cells Understanding and Influencing the Uptake of Nanostructured...
251
859 Future Directions for Nanoreactors and Mammalian Stem Cells
256
References
257
About the Editors
269
List of Contributors
271
Index
273
Copyright

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About the author (2008)

Agnes Ostafin is head of the Ostafin Nanobiotechnology Group at the University of Utah and an assistant professor in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the University of Notre Dame.

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