Nanotechnology: Basic Science and Emerging Technologies

Front Cover
The emergence of nanoscience portends a revolution in technology that will soon impact virtually every facet of our technological lives. Yet there is little understanding of what it is among the educated public and often among scientists and engineers in other disciplines. Furthermore, despite the emergence of undergraduate courses on the subject, no basic textbooks exist.

Nanotechnology: Basic Science and Emerging Technologies bridges the gap between detailed technical publications that are beyond the grasp of nonspecialists and popular science books, which may be more science fiction than fact. It provides a fascinating, scientifically sound treatment, accessible to engineers and scientists outside the field and even to students at the undergraduate level. After a basic introduction to the field, the authors explore topics that include molecular nanotechnology, nanomaterials and nanopowders, nanoelectronics, optics and photonics, and nanobiometrics. The book concludes with a look at some cutting-edge applications and prophecies for the future.

Nanoscience will bring to the world technologies that today we can only imagine and others of which we have not yet dreamt. This book lays the groundwork for that future by introducing the subject to those outside the field, sparking the imaginations of tomorrow's scientists, and challenging them all to participate in the advances that will bring nanotechnology's potential to fruition.
 

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Contents

1 Background to nanotechnology
1
12 Types of nanotechnology and nonomachines
7
13 The periodic table
9
14 Atomic structure
12
15 Molecules and phases
16
16 Energy
19
17 Molecular and atomic size
23
18 Surfaces and dimensional space
25
Biological computing a protein based 3d optical memory based on bacteriorhodopsin
151
Ion channels as sensors
154
65 Structure is information DNA
159
Using DNA to bild nanocubes and hinges
161
DNA as smart glue
162
DNA as wire template
163
66 A biological nanotechnological future
165
67 Exercises
167

19 Top down and bottom up
26
110 Excercises
27
111 References
28
2 Molecular nanotechnology
29
22 Electron microscopes
30
23 Scanning electron microscope
31
24 Modern transmission electron microscope
34
25 Scanning probe microscopy atomic force microscope
36
26 Scanning tunnelling microscope
41
27 Nanomanipulator
43
29 Atom manipulation
44
210 Nanodots
48
212 Dip pen nanolithography
51
213 Excercises
53
214 References
54
3 Nanopowders and nanomaterials
56
32 Preparation
58
33 Plasma arcing
59
35 Solgels
62
Hydrolysis
63
Zirconia and yttrium gels
65
Aluminosilicate gels
66
forming nanostructured surfaces using the solgel process
68
Trapping by solgels
70
36 Electrodeposition
71
37 Ball milling
74
38 Using natural nanoparticles
76
39 Applications of nanomaterials
78
Insulation materials
80
Batteries
81
Other medical uses
82
310 Excercises
85
4 The carbon age
87
42 Types of nanotubes
89
43 Formation of nanotubes
93
Arcing in the presence of cobalt
95
Laser methods
98
Ball milling
100
44 Assemblies
101
46 The properties of nanotubes
102
Strength and clasticity
103
47 Uuses of nanotubes
104
Hydrogen storage
105
Mechanical machines
107
Space elevators
108
48 Exercises
110
5 Molecular mimics
113
51 Catenanes and rotaxanes
114
53 The electron driven molecular shuttle switch
116
55 The light driven molecular shuttle switch
117
56 Synthesis of rotaxanes amd catenanes
121
57 Rotaxanes and molecular computers
125
59 Prodders
130
510 Flippers
132
513 Contacts
135
514 Excercises
138
6 Nanobiometrics
140
62 Lipids as nano bricks and mortar
141
Lipid structure
142
Things to do with lipids templates
145
64 The bits that do things proteins
148
Nanoscale motors
149
7 Optics Photonics and solar energy
168
Reflectance of light
170
Transmission of light
172
72 Interaction of light and nanotechnology
174
Dielectric Constant and polarisation
175
Refractive index
176
73 Nanoholes and photons
177
74 Imaging
179
75 New low cost energy efficient windows and solar absorbers based on nanoparticles
180
Nanotechnology and daylight
181
Solar cells and nanoparticles and nanostructures
182
Optically useful nanostructured polymers
183
76 Photonic crystals surface wave guides and control of light paths
184
77 Exercises
186
78 Rerferences
187
8 Nanoelectronics
188
82 What will nanoelectronics do for us?
191
83 The birth of electronics
192
The invention of the transistor
193
Integrated circuits
195
Electron beam lithography
197
Atomic lithography
198
Molecular beam epitaxy
201
85 From classical to quantum physics
205
86 Quantum electronic devices
207
Quantum interference transistor
209
Single electron transistors
210
Quantum corrals in electronics
212
Carbon nanotube transistors
213
Molecular electronics
214
DNADirected assembly and application in electronics
215
How is a quantum computer different to a classical computuer?
216
How does a quantum computer work?
218
ReadOut from an idealised atomicquantum computer
219
Decoherence the enemy of quantum computation
220
The power of quantum computation
221
Power of a quantum computer
222
Grovers algorithm
223
89 Exercises
227
810 References
228
9 Future applications
232
92 Robots how small can they go?
236
93 Ageless materials
237
94 Invisible mending of atomic dislocations inside damaged materials
238
95 Nanomechanics and nanoelasticity
240
96 Nanoparticle coatings special new effects
241
98 Optoelectronics devices
244
99 Environmental application
246
910 Exercises
249
10 Into the realms of imagination
250
102 Communication
251
103 Manufacturing
252
Active materials and swarms
253
104 Nanomedicine
254
105 Society and ethics
258
106 Religion and making everything from everything else
259
107 Thanks for all the fish
260
108 Exercises
262
108 References
263
Index
264
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