Nanotechnology-Enabled Sensors

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Springer Science & Business Media, Sep 19, 2007 - Technology & Engineering - 492 pages
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Nanotechnology provides us with tools to create functional materials, devices, and systems by controlling materials at the atomic and molecular scales by making use of novel properties and phenomena. Considering that most chemical and biological sensors, as well as many physical sensors, depend on interactions occurring within the nanoscale range, the impact that nanotechnology will have on the sensor world is significant. Nanotechnology-enabled sensors find applications in several fields such as health and safety, medicine, process control and diagnostics. Nanostructured materials will be increasingly used for the development of next-generation of chemical, physical and biosensors, attracting interests in the scientific and industrial communications. This book provides the reader with information on how nanotechnology enabled sensors are currently being used and how they will be used in the future in such diverse fields as communications, building and facilities, medicine, safety, and security, including both homeland defense and military operations.

 

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Contents

57 Electron Microscopy
248
571 Scanning Electron Microscope SEM
250
572 Transmission Electron Microscope TEM
255
58 Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry RBS
259
59 Scanning Probe Microscopy SPM
263
591 Scanning Tunneling Microscope STM
264
592 Atomic Force Microscope AFM
267
510 Mass Spectrometry
270

232 Photodielectric Effect
27
234 Electroluminescence Effect
31
235 Chemiluminescence Effect
34
237 Barkhausen Effect
36
239 NernstEttingshausen Effect
38
2311 Thermoresistive Effect
42
2312 Piezoresistive Effect
43
2313 Piezoelectric Effect
46
2314 Pyroelectric effect
47
2315 MagnetoMechanical Effect Magnetostriction
48
2316 Mangnetoresistive Effect
49
2317 FaradayHenry Law
51
2318 Faraday Rotation Effect
54
2319 MagnetoOptic Kerr Effect MOKE
55
2320 Kerrand Pockels Effects
56
24 Summary
57
Transduction Platforms
63
33 Optical Waveguide based Transducers
66
331 Propagation in Optical Waveguides
67
332 Sensitivity of Optical Waveguides
69
333 Optical Fiber based Transducers
71
334 Interferometric Optical Transducers
72
335 Surface Plasmon Resonance SPR Transducers
74
34 Electrochemical Transducers
79
341 Chemical Reactions
80
343 Nernst Equation
84
344 Reference Electrodes
87
345 Ion Selective Electrodes
90
Electrochemical pH Sensors
93
347 Voltammetry
94
Stripping Analysis
105
35 Solid State Transducers
106
352 Schottky Diode based Transducers
108
353 MOS Capacitor based Transducers
111
354 Field Effect Transistor based Transducers
113
36 Acoustic Wave Transducers
118
361 Quartz Crystal Microbalance
119
362 Film Bulk Acoustic Wave Resonator FBAR
121
363 Cantilever based Transducers
123
364 Interdigitally Launched Surface Acoustic Wave SAW Devices
125
37 Summary
129
Nano Fabrication and Patterning Techniques
135
42 Synthesis of Inorganic Nanoparticles
136
422 Synthesis of Magnetic Nanoparticles
137
423 Synthesis of Metallic Nanoparticles
138
43 Formation of Thin Films
141
432 Growth of OneDimensional Nanostructured Thin Films
143
433 Segmented OneDimensional Structured Thin Films
150
44 Physical Vapor Deposition PVD
151
442 Sputtering
158
443 Ion Plating
163
444 Pulsed Laser Deposition PLD
164
451 Low Pressure CVD LPCVD
168
453 Atomic Layer CVD ALCVD
170
454 Atmospheric Pressure Plasma CVD APPCVD
172
455 Other CVD Methods
173
462 LangmuirBlodgett LB method
176
463 Electrodeposition
179
47 Casting
182
472 Drop Casting Dip Coating and Spraying
184
49 Nanolithography and NanoPatterning
186
491 Photolithography
187
492 Scanning Probe Nanolithography Techniques
190
493 Nanoimprinting
191
494 Patterning with Energetic Particles
193
495 XRay Lithography XRL and LIGA
197
496 Interference Lithography
200
497 Ion Implantation
202
410 Summary
204
Characterization Techniques for Nanomaterials
211
521 UVVisible Spectroscopy
215
522 Photoluminescence PL Spectroscopy
219
523 Infrared Spectroscopy
223
53 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance NMR Spectroscopy
228
54 XRay Photoelectron Spectroscopy XPS
232
55 XRay Diffraction XRD
237
56 Light Scattering Techniques
240
561 Dynamic Light Scattering DLS
241
562 Raman Spectroscopy
245
5101 MatrixAssisted Laser DesorptionIonisation MALDI Mass Spectrometer
272
5102 Time of Flight TOF Mass Spectrometer
273
511 Summary
274
Inorganic Nanotechnology Enabled Sensors
282
621 Confinement in Quantum Dimensions
284
622 Momentum and Energy of Particles
285
623 Reciprocal Space
286
624 Definition of Density of States
287
626 DOS in TwoDimensional Materials
289
627 DOS in OneDimensional Materials
291
629 Discussions on the DOS
292
6210 Theoretical and Computational Methods
296
6211 OneDimensional Transducers
297
OneDimensional Gas Sensors
302
63 Gas Sensing with Nanostructured Thin Films
304
631 Adsorption on Surfaces
305
632 Conductometric transducers Suitable for Gas Sensing
307
633 Gas Reaction on the Surface Concentration of Free Charge Carriers
313
634 Effect of Gas Sensitive Structures and Thin Films
319
635 Effects of Deposition Parameters and Substrates
322
636 Metal Oxides Modification by Additives
323
637 Surface Modification
325
638 Filtering
328
64 Phonons in Low Dimensional Structures
329
641 Phonons in OneDimensional Structures
330
642 ElectronPhonon Interactions in Low Dimensional Materials
334
643 Phonons in Sensing Applications
337
644 OneDimensional Piezoelectric Sensors
338
65 Nanotechnology Enabled Mechanical Sensors
340
651 Oscillators based on Nanoparticles
341
652 OneDimensional Mechanical Sensors
343
653 Bulk Materials and Thin Films Made of NanoGrains
345
654 Piezoresistors
347
66 Nanotechnology Enabled Optical Sensors
348
662 The Optical Properties of Nanoparticles
352
663 Sensors based on Plasmon Resonance in Nanoparticles
353
67 Magnetically Engineered Spintronic Sensors
356
671 AMR Giant and Colossal MagnetoResistors
357
672 Spin Valves
360
673 Magnetic Tunnel Junctions
361
674 Other Nanotechnology Enabled Magnetic Sensors
362
68 Summary
363
Organic Nanotechnology Enabled Sensors
371
72 Surface Interactions
372
723 Adsorption
379
724 Physical Entrapment
380
725 Chemical Entrapment
381
727 LayerbyLayer Assembly
384
73 Surface Materials and Surface Modification
386
732 Silicon Silicon Dioxide and Metal Oxides Surfaces
387
733 Carbon Surfaces
389
734 Conductive and NonConductive Polymeric Surfaces
390
735 Examples of Surface Modifications in Biosensors
401
74 Proteins in Nanotechnology Enabled Sensors
404
742 The Analysis of Proteins
409
744 Using Proteins as Nanodevices
411
745 Antibodies in Sensing Applications
412
746 Antibody Nanoparticle Conjugates
418
747 Enzymes in Sensing Applications
420
748 Enzyme Nanopraticle Hybrid based Sensors
425
749 Motor Proteins in Sensing Applications
427
7410 Transmembrane Sensors
428
75 Nanosensors based on Nucleotides and DNA
436
751 The Structure of DNA
438
752 The Structure of RNA
441
753 DNA Decoders and Microarrays
442
754 DNAbased Sensors
449
755 DNAProtein Conjugatebased Sensors
452
756 DNA Conjugates with Inorganic Materials
455
757 Bioelectronic Sensors based on DNA
459
758 DNA Sequencing with Nanopores
463
76 Sensors Based on Molecules with Dendritic Arcitectures
465
77 Force Spectroscopy and Microscopy of Organic Materials
467
78 Biomagnetic Sensors
469
79 Summary
470
Index
482
About the Authors
491
Copyright

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