Narrative as Virtual Reality: Immersion and Interactivity in Literature and Electronic Media
Is there a significant difference in attitude between immersion in a game and immersion in a movie or a novel? What are the new possibilities for representation offered by the emerging technology of virtual reality? As Marie-Laure Ryan demonstrates in this study, the questions raised by new, interactive technologies have their precursors and echoes in pre-electronic literary and artistic traditions. Formerly a culture of immersive ideals - getting lost in a good book, for example -we are becoming, Ryan claims, a culture more concerned with interactivity. Approaching the idea of virtual reality as a metaphor for total art, the text applies the concepts of immersion and interactivity to develop a phenomenology of reading.
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ONE The Two and Thousand Faces of the Virtual
TWO Virtual Reality as Dream and as Technology
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action activity actors aesthetic artistic audience becomes Brenda Laurel chapter characters clicking computer games concept create culture cyberspace described Diamond Age display dramatic dream electronic emotional environment Espen Aarseth experience fictional world genre George Landow human Humpty hypertext hypertext fiction idea illusion imagination immersion and interactivity installation art interactive drama interactor involvement Janet Murray language lexias literature live means medium mental metaphor Michael Joyce mind mode MOOs movie narrative novel objects offer Oulipo participation phenomenology physical picture play player pleasure plot point of view possible worlds postmodern postmodern literature potential present produce reader reading real world representation scene screen segment semantic sense sensory simulation space spatial spectator story structure suspense temporal Tevet textual world theater theorists theory tion Twelve Blue user's virtual body virtual reality virtual world visual words writing