Natural Kinds and Conceptual Change
In this illuminating book, Joseph LaPorte argues that scientists have not discovered that sentences about natural kinds are true rather than false. Instead, scientists have found that these sentences were vague in the language of earlier speakers and they have refined the meanings of these terms to make the sentences true. In the process, however, they have also changed the meaning of these terms. This book will appeal to students and professionals in the philosophy of science, the philosophy of biology and the philosophy of language.
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1 What Is a Natural Kind and Do Biological Taxa Qualify?
2 Natural Kinds Rigidity and Essence
3 Biological Kind Term Reference and the Discovery of Essence
4 Chemical Kind Term Reference and the Discovery of Essence
5 Linguistic Change and Incommensurability
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analyticity ancestral group Apatosaurus argue arise by evolution atomic number belong biological kinds biologists birds Brontosaurus causal theory change and meaning change and theory Chapter chemical clade that stems cladistic claim coined conclusion context Darwin descendants descriptions Deuterium Deuterium Earth dinosaurs discovered discovery discuss distinction earlier speakers empirical essences essentially evolutionary taxonomists evolve example extension false fish foregoing genetic Ghiselin group G guinea pigs Hesperus higher taxa identity statements incommensurability individuals jadeite kind terms Kripke and Putnam Kuhn lay speakers lineage linguistic change Mammalia mammals Mayr meaning change microstructural monotremes natural kinds natural-kind terms necessarily true necessity associated nephrite object organisms panda Panthera tigris philosophers Phosphorus polar bear possible worlds properties Quinean recognize refined reject rigid designators rodents scientific scientists seems sentence suggests supposed synonymy systematists taxa taxon taxonomy term species theory change theory of reference tiger truth vagueness vernacular terms vitalism vitalists whales