Networks of Innovation: Vaccine Development at Merck, Sharp and Dohme, and Mulford, 1895-1995
Cambridge University Press, Aug 13, 1997 - Business & Economics - 273 pages
Networks of Innovation offers an historical perspective on the manner in which private-sector organizations have acquired, sustained, and periodically lost the ability to develop, manufacture, and market new serum antitoxins and vaccines. The primary focus is on the H.K. Mulford Company, on Sharp & Dohme, which acquired Mulford in 1929, and upon Merck & Co., Inc., which merged with Sharp & Dohme in 1953. By surveying a century of innovation in biologicals, the authors are able to analyze the conditions that either promoted or prevented creative changes in this important industry. They show how the activities of these three commercial enterprises were related to a series of complex, evolving networks of scientific, governmental, and medical institutions in the United States and abroad. This is the first such history to draw extensively on sources internal to Merck, one of the world's leading innovators in modern vaccines and pharmaceuticals.
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American antibody antigen Attenuated became biologicals cause Cell Biology cell culture clinical combination concerned continued Control culture cycle Department diphtheria doses E. B. Buynak early effective efforts England Journal especially established experience firm firm's Hepatitis History Human immunization important included indicated industry infection Infectious Diseases influenza initial innovation Institute International involved JAMA John Journal of Medicine July Laboratories Lancet later licensed Live M. R. Hilleman major measles Medical Merck million Mulford Mumps needed Notes operations organizations Pediatrics percent pharmaceutical Pneumococcal Point political prepared president Prevention problems protection Public Health Report response Rubella scientific serum Sharp & Dohme Society Stokes strain substantial success tests tion Tishler trials Type United University vaccine Viral virology Virus and Cell Virus Vaccine World York
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