Neurobehavioral Disorders of Childhood: An Evolutionary Perspective

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Springer Science & Business Media, Jan 31, 2004 - Medical - 447 pages
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Attention deficit disorder, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, pervasive developmental disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, asperger's syndrome, and autism, to name but a few, may be viewed as points on a spectrum of developmental disabilities in which those points share features in common and possibly etiology as well, varying only in severity and in the primary anatomical region of dysfunctional activity.

This text focuses on alterations of the normal development of the child. A working theory is presented based on what we know of the neurological and cognitive development in the context of evolution of the human species and its brain. In outlining our theory of developmental disabilities in evolutionary terms, the authors offer evidence to support the following notions: Bipedalism was the major reason for human neocortical evolution; Cognition evolved secondary and parallel to evolution of motricity; There exists an overlap of cognitive and motor symptoms; Lack of thalamo-cortical stimulation, not overstimulation, is a fundamental problem of developmental disabilities; A primary problem is dysfunctions of hemisphericity; Most conditions in this spectrum of disorders are the result of a right hemisphericity; Environment is a fundamental problem; All of these conditions are variations of the same problem; These problems are correctable; Hemisphere specific treatment is the key to success.

 

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Contents

Introduction
1
COMORBIDITIES OF NEUROBEHAVIORAL DISORDERS OF CHILDHOOD
9
Learning Disabilities
10
AutismAspergers Syndrome
11
THE DOPAMINE CONNECTION
13
Evolution of the Human Brain
15
The Mechanics of Walking
18
Changes to the Vestibular System in Upright Posture
20
Dopamine
149
ASYMMETRY AND EMOTIONS
152
ATTENTIONAL ASYMMETRIES
164
Tactile Inattention
165
AROUSAL
166
LEARNING
167
THE FUNCTIONS OF THE CORTICOCORTICO FIBERS
169
Direct Transfer
174

Bipedalism and the Growth of the Human Brain
21
Neuron Theory
23
Plasticity
25
Evolutionary Growth of the Human Brain
28
Why the Brain Works the Way it Does Evolution and Cognition from Movement
33
THE EVOLUTION OF COGNITION FROM MOVEMENT
39
The Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia
47
Functions of the Cerebellum
50
The Cerebellum and Motor Learning
56
Evolutionary Implications for Cognitive Function
58
The Cerebellums Role in Information Processing
59
The Basal Ganglia
69
DIRECT AND INDIRECT PATHWAYS
72
THE DOPAMINE SYSTEM
75
The Thalamus
81
The Binding Problem
84
Subcortical Neurotransmitter Systems Facilitating Interregional Communication
88
The Limbic System and the Evolution of the Cerebral Cortex
93
The Anatomy of the Amygdaloid Nucleus Amygdala
95
Functions of the Amygdala
97
Anatomy and Function of the Septal Nuclei
98
Anatomy and Function of the Mammillary Bodies
99
Anatomy of the Hippocampus
100
Functions of the Hippocampus
101
The Hypothalamus
103
The Cerebral Cortex
105
Frontal Lobes
108
The Parietal Lobes
109
The Temporal Lobes
110
BRAIN ASYMMETRY
114
A FOCUS ON THE ADAPTATION FOR MOVEMENT
116
Behavior
119
NonHuman Primates
120
Ontogeny of Human Lateralization
121
Motor Asymmetries
127
Cerebellar Components of Speech and Language Asymmetries
132
Visual Processing
133
Auditory Processing
137
Face Processing
139
Autonomic Asymmetry
142
NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND NEUROENDOCRINE FUNCTION
147
Serotonin
148
Signs and Symptoms of Neurobehavioral Disorders of Childhood
177
BALANCE IS ESSENTIAL
183
TACTILE VISUAL AND AUDITORY SYMPTOMS
190
EMOTIONALLY SIGNIFICANT
193
Vision and Hearing
195
MOTOR SYMPTOMS
204
COGNITIVE DISABILITIES
215
Language
220
Memory
224
EMOTIONAL AND AFFECTIVE SYMPTOMS
225
ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER
231
CORTICALSUBCORTICAL CIRCUITS AND AFFECTIVE DISORDERS
233
FEAR ANGER AND VIOLENT BEHAVIOR
234
OVERLAP OF SYMPTOMS
237
Causation from an Evolutionary Perspective
243
VOLUNTARY REDUCTION IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
245
Neuromuscular Adaptations to Inactivity
249
Neurological Adaptations
251
Sedentary Activity and the Stress Response
252
Gravity and it Effects on the Brain and Performance
253
Gravity Posture Oxygen and Performance
254
Plasticity and Activity Dependence
257
INVOLUNTARY LACK OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
261
INJURY AND ILLNESS
264
Prenatal Stress
267
The Birthing Process
268
The Neck and Movement in Relation to Brain Development
270
Infection and Immunity
273
PARENTAL PHYSICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
275
Genetics and Neurotransmitters
279
Catecholamine Theory
283
Autonomic Hormonal and Immune System Involvement
285
NUTRITION AND AUTISTIC SPECTRUM DISORDERS IN AN EVOLUTIONARY CONTEXT
291
Therapeutic Theory and Strategy
305
SensoryMotor Intervention Strategies
318
Integrated SensoryMotor Intervention Strategies
329
Theories of PhysicalMechanical Interventions
332
MetabolicPhysiological Intervention Strategies
339
Psychopharmacology
348
References
367
Index
441
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Page 401 - Behavioral states and state related heart rate and motor activity patterns in the newborn infant and the fetus ante partum. A comparative study.
Page 409 - Cerebellar vermis dimensions on computerized tomographic scans of schizophrenic and bipolar patients. Am J Psychiatry 1982; 139:667-668 4.

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