New Ways of Ontology

Front Cover
Transaction Publishers, Mar 1, 2012 - Philosophy - 142 pages
Contemporary philosophy has reasserted the belief that philosophy has practical tasks. This turn reflects an understanding that the life of the individual and the community is not molded merely by personal needs and fortunes but also by the strength of dominant ideas. For Nicolai Hartmann, ideas are spiritual powers belonging to the realm of thought, but thought has its own strict discipline and critique of events. In his view, theory must include within its scope problems of the contemporary world and cooperation in work that needs doing. New Ways of Ontology stands in opposition to the tradition of Heidegger. With deep appreciation of the history of philosophical controversy, Hartmann divides mistakes of the old ontology into those related to its method and those concerning its content. Hartmann finds a common mistake behind methodological approaches inspired by late German romanticism in attempts to develop a complete systematic account of the categories of beingā not only of the ideal, but of real being. The main task of New Ways of Ontology is to reveal and analyze interdependences and interconnections. The divisions of being and becoming, of the separation of existence and essence, as well as the old view that the real and the ideal exclude each other, require revision. For Hartmann, whose ideas take us close to modern social science research, ontology is the neutral category that includes subject and object, and gets beyond old realism and modern idealism alike.
 

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Contents

Introduction
1
1 The End of the Old Ontology
27
2 The Categories of Being
33
3 A New Concept of Reality
43
4 The New Ontology and the New Anthropology
51
5 The Stratified Structures of the World
59
6 Old Mistakes and New Critique
67
7 Modification of the Fundamental Categories
75
9 Dependence and Autonomy in the Hierarchy of Strata
91
10 Objections and Prospects
103
11 The Stratification of the Human Being
115
12 Determination and Freedom
121
13 A New Approach to the Problem of Knowledge
129
Appendix
139
Index
141
Copyright

8 The Strata Laws of the Real World
83

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About the author (2012)

Nicolai Hartmann (1882-1950) was born in 1882 in Riga, Latvia, to German parents. He studied philosophy and classics, first in St. Petersburg and later in Marburg, where he was appointed to a chair of philosophy in 1920. In 1931, after a short time at the University of Cologne, Hartmann was offered the prestigious chair of philosophy by the University of Berlin, where he lectured until the end of the war, untainted by Nazism. From 1945 until his death in 1950, he held a chair of philosophy at the University of GOttingen.

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