New Ways of Ontology
Contemporary philosophy has reasserted the belief that philosophy has practical tasks. This turn reflects an understanding that the life of the individual and the community is not molded merely by personal needs and fortunes but also by the strength of dominant ideas. For Nicolai Hartmann, ideas are spiritual powers belonging to the realm of thought, but thought has its own strict discipline and critique of events. In his view, theory must include within its scope problems of the contemporary world and cooperation in work that needs doing. New Ways of Ontology stands in opposition to the tradition of Heidegger. With deep appreciation of the history of philosophical controversy, Hartmann divides mistakes of the old ontology into those related to its method and those concerning its content. Hartmann finds a common mistake behind methodological approaches inspired by late German romanticism in attempts to develop a complete systematic account of the categories of beingā not only of the ideal, but of real being. The main task of New Ways of Ontology is to reveal and analyze interdependences and interconnections. The divisions of being and becoming, of the separation of existence and essence, as well as the old view that the real and the ideal exclude each other, require revision. For Hartmann, whose ideas take us close to modern social science research, ontology is the neutral category that includes subject and object, and gets beyond old realism and modern idealism alike.
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1 The End of the Old Ontology
2 The Categories of Being
3 A New Concept of Reality
4 The New Ontology and the New Anthropology
5 The Stratified Structures of the World
6 Old Mistakes and New Critique
7 Modification of the Fundamental Categories
8 The Strata Laws of the Real World
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actual structures Aristotle autonomy axiology basic basis become border line boundaries categorial analysis categorial dependence categorial laws categorial novelty causal determinism causal nexus co-ordination cognitive categories comprehensible concept consciousness consists critique Dasein elements epistemological essence eternally puzzling everything existence fact Fichte form of determination freedom fundamental categories grasped Hegel heterogeneity higher categories higher form higher ontological stratum higher stratum historical human idea ideal independence indifferent inorganic Kant Kant-Studien Kant’s knowledge laws of dependence laws of stratification Leibniz limits lower categories lower stratum man’s material matter means metaphysics mode monism multiplicity nature neo-Kantianism Nicolai Hartmann object old ontology ontic ontological categories ontological strata organic penetrate phenomena phenomenology philosophy Plato principles priori problem psychic question real world realm recurrence regard relation relationship Sosein spatial spirit superimposition superinformation teleological theories things tion understanding unity universal values Walter de Gruyter whole world picture