New citizens for a new society: the institutional origins of mass schooling in Sweden
Employing a macro-sociological perspective applicable to all Western countries, this book argues that mass schooling is an essentially ideological enterprise. Concentrating on the 1650-1850 period in Swedish history, the book traces the institutionalization of the universal, egalitarian individual and the homogeneous, integrated national polity as primordial social elements in place of the corporate groups of estate society. It then studies the reorganization of the Swedish polity as a secular project for the pursuit of progress under the direction of an active bureaucratic state. These transformations led to the ideology of mass schooling as a ceremonial means of preparing competent, responsible citizens who could participate successfully in the rationalized, exchange-oriented polity. The book's detailed study of primary schooling between 1800 and 1880 supports this theory, demonstrating that competing theories - functionalist, social control, status competition, and modernization arguments - are contradicted by the Swedish primary schooling in the 20th century and speculates about future mass schooling developments.
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Theories of the Emergence of Mass Schooling
Schooling as Status Group Competition
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19th century academic schools active adult Age of Liberty agricultural analysis attended authority became burghers Carlsson central Chapter childhood socialization Christian church citizen civil polity clergy collective common school conception consolidation construction corporate countries cultural curriculum differentiation dimensions egalitarian elite emerged empowered enrolled established estate society expansion formal framework freeholders functional Gustav Gustav III Gustav IV Adolf Gustav Vasa Hence highly human ideology important increasingly indivi industrial institutional structure integrated labor land landholders legitimate literacy mass education mass schooling mass schooling system means ment model of society modern model modern society monetarized moral movement national polity nobility noble organization organizational parish council parish priest participation peasant peasantry period Pietist population problems production progress proletariat promote Prussia public realm reform reified religious Riksdag ritual role rural secular social control sovereignty status group strata Sweden Swedish teachers temperance movements theory transformation universal upper strata urban village