New hygiene

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Keener, 1906 - 104 pages
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Page 3 - Metschnikoffism,' it has now won the support of its former adversaries. For a long time the ideal of hygienists has been to preserve man from all contact with the germs of infection, to destroy them and destroy the animals conveying them, such as rats, mosquitoes, and other flies. But it has now been borne in upon us that, useful as such attempts are, and great as is the improvement in human conditions which can thus be effected, yet we cannot hope for any really complete or satisfactory...
Page 27 - ... anthrax. To a number of rabbits alcohol was administered for several days in succession ; they were then injected subcutaneously with a small dose of the first vaccine of anthrax. Six animals thus treated died after a more or less prolonged illness; all of these contained anthrax bacilli in their blood and organs. Of four control rabbits which received the same dose of the same vaccine, but to which no alcohol had been administered, only one died, whilst the other three enjoyed perfect health....
Page 25 - It is well known that persons who indulge too freely in alcohol show far less resistance to infectious diseases, especially to croupous pneumonia, than abstemious individuals. The vaccinations against hydrophobia carried out on persons bitten by mad animals are almost always successful ; but those cases in which the treatment does not stop the outbreak of the disease are most frequently observed in individuals addicted to alcoholism.
Page 4 - we meet with cases where the living body remains intact, in spite of its containing pathogenic microbes. Not very long ago quite the contrary was thought to be the case. When Loeffler first found diphtheria bacilli in the throat of a healthy child, doubts arose in his mind as to the etiologic role of his microbe. Latterly it has become generally acknowledged that a man may be the host of diphtheria bacilli, cholera vibriones, or other pathogenic bacteria, without necessarily developing the corresponding...
Page 25 - ... any except minute quantities it has been shown to be injurious. It lowers the resistance of the white corpuscles, which are the natural defenders of the body. Although the phagocytes belong to the most resistant elements of our body, yet it is not safe to count on their insensibility toward poisons. It is well known that persons who indulge too freely in alcohol show far less resistance to infectious diseases than abstemious individuals.
Page 26 - In pursuance of this observation, Delearde, of the Pasteur Institute in Lille, has undertaken a series of experiments which have proved to him that the absorption of alcohol is without a doubt a grave obstacle to the immunization against hydrophobia. At the same time he found that rabbits to which he administered alcohol in the course of immunization against anthrax died of this disease, whilst the control animals, which were given no alcohol, could be vaccinated without any difficulty.
Page 28 - ... to the hygienic measures which may check the outbreak of infectious disease. This postulate further strengthens the thesis that the future of medicine rests far more in hygiene than in therapeutics.
Page 26 - Our interest centres mainly in his experiments on the vaccination against anthrax. To a number of rabbits alcohol was administered for several days in succession ; they were then injected subcutaneously with a small dose of the first vaccine of anthrax. Six animals thus treated died after a more or less prolonged illness; all of these contained anthrax bacilli in their blood and organs. Of four control rabbits, which received the same dose of the same vaccine, but to which no alcohol had been administered,...
Page 13 - ... anti-typhoid sensitizing substance. " On the strength of these researches we may conclude that the phagocytes are able to elaborate and even to excrete into the blood substances which fix themselves onto the microbes and render them more amenable to destruction by the body. " Acquired immunity is, therefore, superactivity of the phagocytes which manifests itself by the overproduction of sensitizing substances, by their power of reacting strongly toward the introduction of microbes, and their...
Page 13 - In corresponding researches Deutsch-Ditre proved the phagocytic organs are the nuclei of the antityphoid sensitizing substance. "On the strength of these researches we may conclude that the phagocytes are able to elaborate and even to excrete into the blood substances which fix themselves on to the microbes and render them more amenable to destruction by the body. "Acquired immunity is, therefore, superactivity of the phagocytes, which manifests itself by the overproduction of sensitizing substances,...

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