Night Visibility of Overhead Guide Signs: A Review of the Literature
U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Research, Development, and Technology, Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center, 1985 - Automobile driving at night - 91 pages
This review considers the adequacy of the proposed guide sign configurations in the light of findings in the scientific and technical literature. In particular, the request by the California Department of Transportation (CALTRANS) that non-illuminated opaque overhead signs be permitted, has been examined. In conducting this review, over a hundred research studies were uncovered concerned with diverse aspects of sign effectiveness. An opportunity was thus afforded to organize this literature, identify the basic issues pertinent to sign material choice and to summarize the substantive findings of previous studies.
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FACT0RS AFFECTING DRIVERSIGN C0MMUNICATI0N
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0lson and Bernstein adequate ambient illumination background luminance background signs beam usage button copy color coding color contrast conspicuity Contrast Ratios Corner Reflectors costs detection distances driver encapsulated sheeting Enclosed Lens enclosed sheeting experimental subjects external illumination Federal Highway Administration feet Field legibility Figure Figure Figure Foot-Lamberts Forbes freeway ft-L green background headlamp beam high beams identified illuminated signs inch laboratory Landolt ring legend luminance legend-background legibility distance Lens Direct Applied letter height light low beams luminance and contrast luminance ratio luminous intensity motorist night nonilluminated signs Norren observers opaque background overhead guide signs overhead signs percent porcelain enamel background priority value reflective background reflective sheeting reflectorized retroreflective road sheeting background shown in Figure sign background sign effectiveness sign legibility sign luminance sign treatments signing materials Spherical Reflector surround Table Table Table tion warning signs white legend Woltman Youngblood