Nightjars: a guide to nightjars and related nightbirds
"The nightjars and their allies are amongst the most difficult of all birds to identify. Being strictly nocturnal and cryptically patterned in shades of brown, it is often necessary to rely on size, shape, habitat and voice to safely identify a species."
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Topography and Morphot
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Adult female Similar Adult male Forehead barred brown barred tawny belly and flanks bill male birds blackish boldly spotted Brazil breast BREEDING Breeding season brown speckled buff barred brown buffish buffish-white Caprimulgidae Caprimulgiformes chicks cinnamon collar on hindneck Common Nighthawk Common Poorwill Crepuscular crown and nape dark brown DISTRIBUTION AND MOVEMENTS edged European Nightjar flight forest four outer primaries Frogmouth further data available further information available GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION greyish greyish-brown ground HABITAT heavily spotted IDENTIFICATION Length incubating innerwebs lack white markings Large-tailed Nightjar Lesser Nighthawk lower throat MEASUREMENTS Wing male Monotypic mottled moult nest-site Nighthawk Nightjar Caprimulgus nominate occasionally Oilbird outer tail feathers outerwebs pale buff pale tawny paler perches Potoo roost rufous Scapulars Scarabaeidae scrubland Sexually dimorphic speckled brown spotted blackish-brown spotted buff spotted tawny streaked blackish-brown supercilium tail male tarsus male tawny-buff Tertials tipped white underparts undertail-coverts Weight male Weight no data white spot white tips whitish wing-coverts wing-tip