No Child Left Behind Act: Text, Interpretation and Changes
Book & CD. On 8 January 2002, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, legislation to extend and revise the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), was signed into law as P.L. 107-110 (H.R. 1). This legislation extensively amends and re-authorises many of the programs of federal aid to elementary and secondary education. Major features of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 include the following: (a) states will be required to implement standards-based assessments in reading and mathematics for pupils in each of grades 3-8 by the 2005-2006 school year, and at three grade levels in science by the 2007-2008 school year; (b) grants to states for assessment development are authorised; (c) all states will be required to participate in National Assessment of Educational Progress tests in 4th and 8th grade reading and mathematics every second year; (d) states must develop adequate yearly progress (AYP) standards, incorporating a goal of all pupils reaching a proficient or advanced level of achievement within 12 years, and apply them to each public school, local education agency (LEA), and the state overall; (e) a sequence of consequences, including public school choice and supplemental services options, would apply to schools and LEAs that fail to meet AYP standards for 2 or more consecutive years; (f) ESEA Title I allocation formulas are modified to increase targeting on high poverty states and LEAs and to move Puerto Rico gradually toward parity with the states; (g) within 3 years, all paraprofessionals paid with Title I funds must have completed at least 2 years of higher education or met a "rigorous standard of quality"; (h) several new programs aimed at improving reading instruction are authorised; (i) teacher programs are consolidated into a state grant authorising a wide range of activities such as teacher recruitment, professional development, and hiring; (j) states and LEAs participating in Title I have various requirements to ensure that teachers meet the bill's definition of "highly qualified" by the end of the 2005-2006 school year; (k) almost all states and LEAs are authorised to transfer a portion of the funds they receive under several programs, and selected states and LEAs may consolidate funds under certain programs through performance agreements; (l) federal support of public school choice is expanded; (m) several previous programs are consolidated into a state grant supporting integration of technology into K-12 education; (n) the Bilingual and Emergency Immigrant Education Acts are consolidated into a single formula grant, with existing limits on the share of grants for specific instructional approaches eliminated; and (o) the 21st Century Community Learning Center program is converted into a formula grant with increased focus on after-school activities. This book and accompanying CD-ROM present the full text of the Act and important interpretations of it.
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