Non-Muslims in the Early Islamic Empire: From Surrender to Coexistence
The Muslim conquest of the East in the seventh century entailed the subjugation of Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians and others. Although much has been written about the status of non-Muslims in the Islamic empire, no previous works have examined how the rules applying to minorities were formulated. Milka Levy-Rubin's remarkable book traces the emergence of these regulations from the first surrender agreements in the immediate aftermath of conquest to the formation of the canonic document called the Pact of 'Umar, which was formalized under the early 'Abbasids, in the first half of the ninth century. The study reveals that the conquered peoples themselves played a major role in the creation of these policies and that they were based on long-standing traditions, customs and institutions from earlier pre-Islamic cultures that originated in the worlds of both the conquerors and the conquered. In its connections to Roman, Byzantine and Sasanian traditions, the book will appeal to historians of Europe as well as Arabia and Persia.
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The Legal Debate overthe Status of the Dhimmı ̄ s
3 The Date and the Ideology of the Ghiyar Code
4 The Enforcement of Shurut Umar
5 The Provenance of the Modes of Subordination of NonMuslims
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Abﬁ Abu Yusuf Abu ʿUbayd according adduced adopted Ahkam al-Baladhurı al-Mutawakkil’s al-Shafiʿı al-Sham al-Tabarı aman Ammianus Marcellinus amsar amsar al-muslimın Amwal ancient Arabic baqt Beirut belt Buldan Byzantine law caliph chap Christians Chronicle Chronicon churches cited clause Cohen conquered customs deditio dhimmıs dihqans document dress edict empire Encyclopedia Iranica fact Fattal ghiyar Greek Hilal al-Sabi Ibid Ibn Asakir Ibn Khaldun Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya inhabitants Iranian Islam isnad issue Jerusalem Jews jizya Khusro king Kitab al-kharaj Kitab al-umm kunyas Leiden Levy-Rubin Muhammad Muqaddimah Muslim conquerors Muslim conquest Muslim rule Muslim society naqus non-Muslims noted obligation ofthe Pact of Umar Persian prayer-houses prohibition regarding restrictions Roman rulers Samaritan Sasanian Sasanian society Shurut ʿUmar social sources status sulh agreement surrender agreements Ta’rikh Taʾrıkh term Theophanes tion tradition trans treaty Tritton Umar Umayyad wear Zoroastrian zunnar ʿAbbasid ʿAbd al-Razzaq ʿAbd al-ʿAzız ʿahd ʿala