Non-Muslims in the Early Islamic Empire: From Surrender to Coexistence

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Cambridge University Press, Sep 30, 2011 - History
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The Muslim conquest of the East in the seventh century entailed the subjugation of Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians and others. Although much has been written about the status of non-Muslims in the Islamic empire, no previous works have examined how the rules applying to minorities were formulated. Milka Levy-Rubin's remarkable book traces the emergence of these regulations from the first surrender agreements in the immediate aftermath of conquest to the formation of the canonic document called the Pact of 'Umar, which was formalized under the early 'Abbasids, in the first half of the ninth century. The study reveals that the conquered peoples themselves played a major role in the creation of these policies and that they were based on long-standing traditions, customs and institutions from earlier pre-Islamic cultures that originated in the worlds of both the conquerors and the conquered. In its connections to Roman, Byzantine and Sasanian traditions, the book will appeal to historians of Europe as well as Arabia and Persia.
 

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Contents

Introduction
1
1 The Roots and Authenticity of the Surrender Agreements in the Seventh Century
8
The Legal Debate overthe Status of the Dhimmı ̄ s
58
3 The Date and the Ideology of the Ghiyar Code
88
4 The Enforcement of Shurut Umar
99
5 The Provenance of the Modes of Subordination of NonMuslims
113
Conclusion
164
Al Turtushis Version of Shurut Umar
171
AlShafis Version of the Pact to Be Accorded to NonMuslim Subjects
173
Notes
177
Glossary
235
Bibliography
239
Index
255
Copyright

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About the author (2011)

Milka Levy-Rubin is a Lecturer in History and Middle Eastern Studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. She is the author of The Continuatio of the Samaritan Chronicle of Abu L'Fath Al Samiri Al Danafi (2002).

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