Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics and the Production of Entropy: Life, Earth, and Beyond

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Axel Kleidon, Ralph D. Lorenz
Springer Science & Business Media, Nov 18, 2004 - Science - 264 pages
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The present volume studies the application of concepts from non-equilibrium thermodynamics to a variety of research topics. Emphasis is on the Maximum Entropy Production (MEP) principle and applications to Geosphere-Biosphere couplings. Written by leading researchers from a wide range of backgrounds, the book presents a first coherent account of an emerging field at the interface of thermodynamics, geophysics and life sciences.
 

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Contents

Entropy Production by Earth System Processes
1
12 Entropy Production of Climate Systems
2
121 Earths Climate System
3
122 Other Planetary Climate Systems
4
13 The Principles of Minimum and Maximum Entropy Production
5
131 Heat Transport and Minimum Entropy Production
6
132 Heat Transport and Maximum Entropy Production
7
133 Maximum Entropy Production in a Planetary Context
10
105 Entropy Production During Transition Among Multiple Steady States
127
106 Entropy Production During Evolution of Structure
128
107 Analogy Between Ocean System and Living System
130
Entropy and the Shaping of the Landscape by Water
135
112 Early Work by Leopold and Langbein
136
113 Scaling Laws in Hydrology
138
114 Thermodynamics of Fractal Networks
141
115 Entropy and Shoreline Profiles
144

134 Minimization Versus Maximization of Entropy Production
11
14 Entropy Production and Life on Earth
12
142 The Gaia Hypothesis
14
15 Structure of This Book
16
Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics in an EnergyRich Universe
21
22 Times Arrow
22
23 Cosmological Setting
24
24 Complexity Rising
26
Stumbling into the MEP Racket An Historical Perspective
33
Maximum Entropy Production and Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics
41
41 Introduction
42
42 Boltzmann Gibbs Shannon Jaynes
43
43 Macroscopic Reproducibility
45
44 The Concept of Caliber
47
46 New Results Far from Equilibrium
49
461 Maximum Entropy Production MEP
50
462 The Fluctuation Theorem FT
51
463 SelfOrganized Criticality SOC
52
47 Thermodynamics of Life
53
Using Ecology to Quantify Organization in Fluid Flows
57
52 Constraint Among Biotic Processes
58
53 Quantifying Constraint in Fluid Flow
61
54 Identifying Flow Bottlenecks
64
Cosmological and Biological Reproducibility Limits on the Maximum Entropy Production Principle
67
611 Cosmological Reproducibility
68
613 Expansion Does Not Increase the Entropy of the Universe
70
614 Return of the Heat Death
71
62 Biological Reproducibility
73
63 Applying the Maximum Entropy Principle to Biological Evolution
75
64 Does the MEP Imply That Life Is Common in the Universe?
76
Entropy Production in Turbulent Mixing
79
72 MEP in Classical Thermodynamics
82
73 MEP in TwoDimensional Turbulence
84
74 Application to Stellar Systems
88
75 Conclusions
89
Entropy Production of Atmospheric Heat Transport
93
82 Entropy Production in an Idealized Dry Atmosphere
95
821 Global Budget of Energy and Entropy
96
823 Theoretical Upper Bound of Entropy Production
97
83 Testing Maximum Entropy Production with Atmospheric General Circulation Models
98
832 Comparing the Analytic MEP Solution to the Simulated Atmosphere
99
833 Sensitivity of Entropy Production to Internal Parameters
101
84 Climatological Implications
103
Water Vapor and Entropy Production in the Earths Atmosphere
107
92 Idealized Cycles
110
Atmospheric Dehumidifier and Water Vapor Expansion
112
Sensible Heat Transport
114
93 Dehumidifier Versus Heat Engine
115
94 Frictional Dissipation in Falling Precipitation
116
95 Entropy Budget of the Earths Atmosphere
117
Thermodynamics of the Ocean Circulation A Global Perspective on the Ocean System and Living Systems
121
102 Calculation of Entropy Production
123
103 Model Description and Experimental Method
124
104 Entropy Production in a Steady State
126
116 Concluding Remarks
145
Entropy Production in the Planetary Context
147
1211 Earth
148
1213 Mars
149
1214 Venus
150
122 A Probabilistic Explanation for MEP
151
123 Dissipation and Heat Transport
152
124 Geomorphology and Dissipative Structures
154
125 The Yarkovsky Effect Migration of Meteorites via a Photon Heat Engine
155
126 Dyson Sphere The Ultimate Stage in Planetary Evolution
157
127 Concluding Remarks
158
The FreeEnergy Transduction and Entropy Production in Initial Photosynthetic Reactions
161
132 The TwoState Kinetic Model
162
133 The Five State Model for Chlorophyll Based Photoconversion
164
134 Slip Coefficients and Forward Static Head State
167
135 Conclusions
168
Biotic Entropy Production and Global AtmosphereBiosphere Interactions
173
142 Photosynthetic Activity and Climatic Constraints
175
1422 Dynamic Constraints of Terrestrial Energy and Water Exchange
177
143 Biogeophysical Effects and Feedbacks
178
1432 Climate Feedbacks of Terrestrial Vegetation
179
144 Biotic Entropy Production and MEP
181
1441 Conditions for Biotic MEP States
182
1442 Biotic States of MEP
183
1443 Biotic MEP and Gaia
186
145 Conclusions
187
Coupled Evolution of Earths Atmosphere and Biosphere
191
Its Atmosphere and Biosphere
192
1523 What Effect Did Primitive Life Have on the Early Atmosphere?
193
153 LongTerm Climate Evolution and the Biosphere
195
The Rise of Oxygen
197
155 Oxygen Energy and Life
199
1552 Why Complex Life Anywhere in the Universe Will Likely Use Oxygen
200
156 The Anomalous Nature of Earths Current Atmosphere
202
Temperature Biogenesis and Biospheric SelfOrganization
207
1611 Cosmology and Temperature
208
163 The Temperature Constraint on Biologic Evolution
212
164 Future Directions
217
Entropy and Gaia Is There a Link Between MEP and SelfRegulation in the Climate System?
223
172 Daisyworld
224
173 Model Formulation
226
174 TwoComponent System
229
175 Multicomponent System
231
177 A TwoBox Model
233
178 Slow Daisies
234
179 Discussion
239
Insights from Thermodynamics for the Analysis of Economic Processes
243
182 Thermodynamic Constraints on Production and Consumption
245
183 Constraints at Macroeconomic Levels
246
184 Thermodynamics and the Evolution of Economic Processes
248
185 Information and Knowledge
249
186 Conclusion
251
Index
255
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