Notes on Recent Researches in Electricity and Magnetism: Intended as a Sequel to Professor Clerk-Maxwell's Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism

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Cambridge University Press, Jun 24, 2010 - Political Science - 600 pages
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This 1893 publication is a central text in the work of the Nobel prize winning physicist Sir Joseph John Thomson (1858-1940). Intended as an extension of James Clerk Maxwell's Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, it documents the important shift in Thomson's thinking towards the model of the atomic electric field, a theory that would eventually lead to his discovery of the electron. In Chapter 1, Thomson documents his experiments with Faraday tubes, using them to physically demonstrate a 'molecular theory of electricity'. Chapter 2 considers the discharge of electricity through gases, Chapter 3 theories of electrostatics, and Chapters 4-6 are primarily concerned with alternating currents. In addition to providing crucial insight into Thomson's evolving theory of the atom, Recent Researches underscores his commitment to experimental physics, which offers 'all the advantages in vividness which arise from concrete qualities rather than abstract symbols'.
 

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Contents

ELECTRIC DISPLACEMENT AND FAEADAY TUBES OF FOECE Art Puge 1 Electric displacement
1
Faraday tubes
2
Unit Faraday tubes
3
Analogy with kinetic theory of gases
4
Behaviour of Faraday tubes in a conductor
5
Connection between electric displacement and Faraday tubes
6
Momentum due to Faraday tubes
9
Electromotive intensity due to induction
10
Two sets of radial plates
246
Two sets of parallel plates
248
Two sets of radial plates
249
Limitation of problems solved
250
CHAPTER IV
251
Alternating currents in two dimensions
253
Case when rate of alternation is very rapid
259
259260 Periodic currents along cylindrical conductors
261

Velocity of Faraday tubes
11
Systems of tubes moving with different velocities
12
Mechanical forces in the electric field
14
Magnetic force due to alteration in the dielectric polarization
15
Application of Faraday tubes to find the magnetic force due to a moving charged sphere
16
Fvotating electrified plates
23
Motion of tubes in a steady magnetic field
28
Induction of currents due to changes in the magnetic field
32
Induction due to the motion of the circuit
33
Effect of soft iron in the field
34
Permanent magnets
35
Steady current along a straight wire
36
Motion of tubes when the currents are rapidly alternating
38
Induced currents
40
Electromagnetic theory of light
42
Galvanic cell
43
Metallic and electrolytic conduction
50
Electric properties of flames
57
Effect of ultraviolet light on the discharge
66
Bailies experiments on the connection between potential differ
72
Appearance of such discharges
96
Discharge through a mixture of gases
103
Crookes theory of the dark space
109
117 Mechanical effects produced by negative rays
124
Phosphorescent glow due to the discharge
184
CHAPTER III
208
Art Pge 235 Distribution of electricity on a plate placed parallel to an infinite plate
212
Case of a plate between two infinite parallel plates
216
Correction for thickness of plate
218
Case of one cube inside another
222
239240 Cube over an infinite plate 225227
225
Case of condenser with guardring when the slit is shallow
227
Correction when guardring is not at the same potential as the plate
231
Case of condenser with guardring when the slit is deep
232
Correction when guardring is not at the same potential as the plate
235
Application of elliptic functions to problems in electrostatics
236
Capacity of a pile of plates
239
Capacity of a system of radial plates
241
Finite plate at right angles to two infinite ones
242
Two sets of parallel plates
244
of the variable
262
Propagation of electric waves along wires
263
263264 Slowly alternating currents 270273
270
Expansion of xJ0xJ0x
274
Moderately rapid alternating currents
276
Very rapidly alternating currents
278
Currents confined to a thin skin
280
Magnetic force in dielectric
282
Transmission of disturbances along wires
283
Art Page
288
Mechanical force between flat conductors
300
Case when the alternations are very rapid
306
Expression for rate of heat production in a wire
314
When the rate of alternation is rapid
321
Heat produced in a tube
327
Time of oscillations on a cylindrical cavity
344
State of the field round the cylinder
350
Electrical oscillations on spheres
361
Equation giving the periods of vibration
367
When the radii of the spheres are nearly equal
375
Art Fn
383
The resonator
391
Refraction of electromagnetic waves
406
Reflection of these waves from and transmission through
414
Table of refractive indices of metals
420
Scattering of light by metal spheres
437
Direction in which the scattered light vanishes
449
Art Page
451
Sarasins and De la Rives experiments on waves along wires
459
Effects produced by a magnetic field on light
482
CHAPTER VI
510
Selfinduction and impedance of the wires
516
Wheatstones bridge with alternating currents
527
CHAPTER VII
534
Propagation of light through a moving dielectric
543
Special case when the field is uniform
550
Force on the sphere
556
For further remarks on electrification by incandescent bodies
569
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About the author (2010)

The British scientist Sir Joseph Thomson is best known in the world of physics for discovering the electron. Thomson studied and taught mathematics, physics, and chemistry at Trinity College, Cambridge University, from 1876 until his death in 1940. He became director of the Cavendish Laboratory at the early age of 27. Of those who eventually worked under him at the laboratory, seven won the Nobel Prize. Thomson won a fellowship to Trinity College with a dissertation showing how a number of physical and chemical effects could be predicted from the laws of mechanics without detailed knowledge. After intensive study of vortex rings and cathode rays, he pioneered the field of subatomic particle physics with his work on the electron. Thomson's experiments showed that cathode rays were made up of particles with a measurable mass. This research resulted in a Nobel Prize for Thomson in 1906. Thomson was an excellent mathematician. However, he made his discoveries primarily by an insight into the physical nature of the world, which the mathematics made more precise. Thomson also had an outstanding ability to devise ingenious experiments that went straight to the point. He is important in science not only for his own work but also as the leader of a group of research workers, including many great physicists of the following generation. Thomson's son G. P. Thomson won the 1937 Nobel Prize in physics.

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