Notes on Recent Researches in Electricity and Magnetism: Intended as a Sequel to Professor Clerk-Maxwell's Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism

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Cambridge University Press, 1893 - Science - 578 pages
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This 1893 publication is a central text in the work of the Nobel prize winning physicist Sir Joseph John Thomson (1858-1940). Intended as an extension of James Clerk Maxwell's Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, it documents the important shift in Thomson's thinking towards the model of the atomic electric field, a theory that would eventually lead to his discovery of the electron. In Chapter 1, Thomson documents his experiments with Faraday tubes, using them to physically demonstrate a 'molecular theory of electricity'. Chapter 2 considers the discharge of electricity through gases, Chapter 3 theories of electrostatics, and Chapters 4-6 are primarily concerned with alternating currents. In addition to providing crucial insight into Thomson's evolving theory of the atom, Recent Researches underscores his commitment to experimental physics, which offers 'all the advantages in vividness which arise from concrete qualities rather than abstract symbols'.
 

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Contents

Velocity of Faraday tubes
11
Systems of tubes moving with different velocities
12
Mechanical forces in the electric field
14
Magnetic force due to alteration in the dielectric polarization
15
Application of Faraday tubes to find the magnetic force due to a moving charged sphere
16
Rotating electrified plates
23
Motion of tubes in a steady magnetic field
28
Induction of currents due to changes in the magnetic field
32
Induction due to the motion of the circuit
33
Effect of soft iron in the field
34
Permanent magnets
35
Steady current along a straight wire
36
Motion of tubes when the currents are rapidly alternating
38
Induced currents
40
Electromagnetic theory of light
42
Galvanic cell
48
Hot gases
54
Disintegration of the negative electrode
60
Electrification by sunlight
66
Bailies experiments on the connection between potential differ
72
Appearance of such discharges
96
Discharge through a mixture of gases
103
Crookestheory of the dark space
109
Art Page
110
Mechanical effects produced hy negative rays
124
Action of a magnet on the negative glow
132
Action of a magnet on the positive column
138
Art Pe
156
Phosphorescent glow due to the discharge
184
CONJUGATE FUNCTIONS
208
Art Pngo 235 Distribution of electricity on a plate placed parallel to an infinite plate
212
Case of a plate between two infinite parallel plates
216
Correction for thickness of plate
218
Case of one cube inside another
222
239240 Cube over an infinite plate 225227
225
Case of condenser with guardring when the slit is shallow
227
Correction when guardring is not at the same potential as the plate
231
Case of condenser with guardring when the slit is deep
232
Correction when guardring is not at the same potential as the plate
235
Application of elliptic functions to problems in electrostatics
236
Capacity of a pile of plates
239
Alternating currents in two dimensions
253
Case when rate of alternation is very rapid
259
259260 Periodic currents along cylindrical conductors
261
of the variable
262
Propagation of electric waves along wires
263
263264 Slowly alternating currents 270273
270
Expansion of x JexJtx
274
Moderately rapid alternating currents
276
Very rapidly alternating currents
278
Currents confined to a thin skin
280
Magnetic forcedn dielectric
282
Transmission of disturbances along wires
283
Art Pg
288
Mechanical force between flat conductors
300
Case when the alternations are very rapid
306
Expression for rate of heat production in a wire
314
When the rate of alternation is rapid
321
Heat produced in a tube
327
Time of oscillations on a cylindrical cavity
344
State of the field round the cylinder
350
Electrical oscillations on spheres
361
Equation giving the periods of vibration
367
When the radii of the spheres are nearly equal
375
Currents induced in a sphere by the annihilation of a uniform
384
The resonator
391
Refraction of electromagnetic waves
406
Reflection of these waves from and transmission through
414
Table of refractive indices of metals
420
Scattering of light by metal spheres
437
Direction in which the scattered light vanishes
449
Art Page
451
Sarasins and De la Rives experiments on waves along wires
459
Effects produced by a magnetic field on light
482
as to make the Kinetic Energy a minimum
510
Selfinduction and impedance of the wires
516
Wheatstones bridge with alternating currents
527
CHAPTER VII
534
Propagation of light through a moving dielectric
543
Special case when the field is uniform
550
The magnetic force is tangential when the rotation is rapid 655
556
For farther remarks on electrification by incandescent bodies
569

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Page 332 - The discharge, whatever may be its nature, is not correctly represented (employing for simplicity the theory of Franklin) by the single transfer of an imponderable fluid from one side of the jar to the other; the phenomena...
Page 332 - This anomaly which has remained so long unexplained, and which at first sight appears at variance with all our theoretical ideas of the connection of electricity and magnetism, was after considerable study satisfactorily referred by the author to an action of the discharge of the Leyden jar which had never before been recognized. The discharge, whatever may be its nature, is not correctly represented (employing for simplicity the theory of Franklin) by the single transfer of an imponderable fluid...
Page v - Professor of Experimental Physics." JJ intended that his second book, Notes on Recent Researches in Electricity and Magnetism, serve as a sequel to Maxwell's Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. "I have endeavoured," he wrote, "to give an account of some recent electrical researches, experimental as well as theoretical, in the hope that it may assist students to gain some acquaintance with the recent progress of Electricity and yet retain Maxwell's Treatise as the source from which they learn the...
Page 189 - Thus, according to the view we are now discussing, chemical decomposition is not to be considered merely as an accidental attendant on the electrical discharge, but as an essential feature of the discharge, without which it could not occur.
Page 332 - Franklin) by the single transfer of an imponderable fluid from one side of the jar to the other ; the phenomena require us to admit the existence of a principal discharge in one direction, and then several reflex actions backward and forward, each more feeble than the preceding, until equilibrium is obtained. All the facts are shown to be in accordance with this hypothesis, and a ready explanation is afforded by it of a number of phenomena which are found in the older works on electricity, but which...
Page 105 - ... discharge passes through the bulb, while when the magnet is on no discharge at all can be detected. The action is very striking, and the explanation of it which seems to fit in best with the phenomena I have observed is that the discharge through the rarefied gas does not rise to its full intensity suddenly, but as it were feels its way. The gas first breaks down along the line where the electromotive intensity is a maximum, and a small discharge takes place along this line. This discharge produces...
Page 449 - The scattered light produced by the incidence of a plane polarized wave vanishes in the plane through the centre at right angles to the magnetic induction in the incident wave along a line making an angle of 120 with the radius to the point at which the wave first strikes the sphere and it does not vanish in any direction other than this. Thus, if non-polarized waves of light or of electric...
Page 106 - B. acting on the secondary can be so adjusted that no discharge passes round the tube ABCD when the magnet is off, whilst a bright discharge occurs as long as the magnet is on. The two effects of the magnet on the discharge, viz, the stoppage of the discharge across the lines of magnetic force, and its acceleration along them...
Page vi - Bacon's dictum that the best results are obtained when a research begins with Physics and ends with Mathematics ... The use of a physical theory will help to correct the tendency - which I think all will admit is by no means uncommon - to look on analytical processes as the modern equivalent of the Philosopher's Machine in the Grand Academy of Lagado, and to regard as the normal process of investigation in this subject the manipulation of a large number of symbols in the hope that every now and then...

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