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addition adoption areas argument basic basis challenges characteristics comparative analysis comparative study conflict context contributed Coombs countries cross-national curriculum deal decisions determinants direction discussion educational innovation educational reform educational research educational system effectiveness efforts evaluation evidence examples experiment experimental factors Federal field Finance findings function further given Governance implementation important initiative Institute instructive interesting issues kinds knowledge lead learning least legitimacy legitimation less Levin limited look major means Merritt methodological nature needs notion organization paradigm participation particularly patterns planning politics of educational possible practice probably problems programs propositions question range Raschert reason recent reference reflection relationship role schools scientific seems sense serve significant social societies STANFORD strategies study of educational success symbolism tends theoretical theory tional typologies understanding University utility variation Weiler West Germany
Page 33 - I came to the conclusion that from the point of view of educational psychology it was not very helpful.
Page 26 - ... is not there— society prefers the status quo. But if we believe that society's perceptions are subject to change, and that research and development can expand the variety of useful alternatives, then such failures can be seen as an inevitable adjunct of the innovation process. That process itself may best be viewed both as a stimulus to social change and as a socially approved process of testing society's readiness for change.
Page 30 - To stimulate and support the programs, increasing infusions of federal funds from such sources as Titles I, III, VII, and VIII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act have been used in addition to state and local monies.
Page 33 - ... schools program, Higher Horizons, More Effective Schools, Sesame Street, The Electric Company, NIE career education models, and performance contracting. There has been wide variation in the perceived success of these efforts, both between and within programs (Averch et al., 1972). But the experiments have in general not been designed or evaluated in ways that would allow anyone to assess the reasons for their success and failure in the real-life setting of the schools.
Page 29 - In an attempt to substantiate the notion that "systematic experimental trials of proposed social programs have certain important advantages over other ways of learning what programs (or program elements) are effective under what circumstances and at what cost...
Page 44 - ... was cited as a major contributing factor in our national decline. The school curriculum was entangled in these national political issues even though the federal government was formally and in theory not a party to educational questions, especially curriculum questions. Such evidence as this indicates that the determination of the public school curriculum is not just influenced by political events; it is a political process in important ways. By "political...