Number Words and Number Symbols: A Cultural History of Numbers

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Courier Corporation, 1969 - Mathematics - 480 pages
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Classic study discusses number sequence and number language, then explores written numerals and computations in a wide range of cultures. 282 illustrations. "Superior narrative ability." — Library Journal.
 

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Contents

Nuum NUMERMS m uun HANbs 406
4
Th6 Abstract Number Sequence
7
Expansion of the Number Suqucnce by Means
33
GROUIINGS IN THE GRADUATED NUMBER SEQUENCE
49
NUMBER SEQUEHCES
64
ovsncouurmo
76
lodeEuropean Family Languages
89
The NonIndoEuropean Languages l ltl
117
Some Other Connections Between Letters
275
Roman Numerals in Cursive Form
281
WRITTEN NuMEMLs AND comuunous
294
THE ROMAN CDUNTING BOARD wrru LOOSE cotmreaa
315
The Counting Board in the Later Middle Ages
332
me muss or THE coummo uonuos
346
mu coonrum nmum nu EVERYDAY LIFE 36
367
PlaceValue Notation
391

Was There a Babylonian Influence on
152
THE BABYLCINIAN ssxaoesmat SYSTEM
169
WRITTEN NUMERALS AND COMPUTATIONS
195
THE vsueaanee aeoe mo ms emcee ooummo
208
ROMAN rmosn couurmo or me Wm
214
Tally Sticks
223
we numuens on me TALL? sncxs
249
The Gothic Numerals
259
The Two Greek Sets of Numerals
268
ALEXANDRIA
405
so un J 78
411
The Indian Numerals in Western Europe
422
THE GERMAN ARITHMETICIAPIIS
431
rm NEW Hummus
444
Spoken Numbers
450
WRITTEN NUMERALS
457
Index
469
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About the author (1969)

The Menninger Clinic was founded in Topeka, Kansas in 1920 by Karl Menninger and his father Charles Frederick Menninger, and in 1926, they were joined by Karl's brother William. The Menninger Foundation, started in 1941, was established for the purpose of research, training, and public education in psychiatry. Karl Menninger was instrumental in founding the Winter Veterans' Administration Hospital, also in Topeka, at the close of World War II. It functioned not only as a hospital but also as the center of the largest psychiatric training program in the world. "The Crime of Punishment" attracted much attention (and some controversy) when it was published in 1968. A former Professor of Criminology and an officer of the American League to Abolish Capital Punishment, Menninger believed that there may be less violence today than there was 100 years ago but that it is now better reported. "We need criminals to identify ourselves with," he said, "to secretly envy and to stoutly punish." The "controlling" of crime by "deterrence," he said, makes "getting caught the unthinkable thing" for offenders (quoted in the New York Times). His plea is for humane, constructive treatment in place of vengeance and an end to public apathy. Menninger was born in Topeka and received his medical degree from Harvard University in 1917. He became interested in neurology and psychology while interning at Kansas City General Hospital. As one of the first physicians to complete psychoanalytic training in the United States and be aware of the critical need for psychiatrically trained personnel, he became administratively involved in various associations over the course of his lifetime. Internationally known as a pioneer in the treatment of mental illness, Menninger wrote with great clarity and human sympathy. His work has done much to dispel misunderstandings about mental illness and its treatment.

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