Numerical Distance Protection: Principles and Applications
Distance protection provides the basis for network protection in transmission systems and meshed distribution systems. This book covers the fundamentals of distance protection and the special features of numerical technology. The emphasis is placed on the application of numerical distance relays in distribution and transmission systems.
This book is aimed at students and engineers who wish to familiarise themselves with the subject of power system protection, as well as the experienced user, entering the area of numerical distance protection. Furthermore it serves as a reference guide for solving application problems.
For this fourth edition all contents, especially the descriptions of numerical protection devices and the very useful appendix have been revised and updated.
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A2 Calculation with phasors and complex quantities
A3 Fundamentals of symmetrical component analysis
A4 Impedances of overhead lines and cables
A5 Reach of backup zones on parallel lines
A6 Tilting of the quadrilateral top line to avoid overreach
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applies approx back-up protection back-up zones busbar cable characteristic CIGRE circuit-breaker close-in faults conductor corresponding current and voltage current transformer diagram direction distance measurement distance protection distance relay distance to fault distance zones double circuit lines double earth-fault double-circuit earth-current equation equivalent circuit fast tripping fault current fault detection fault impedance fault inception fault location fault loop fault resistance feeder function grading healthy phase implemented infeed intermediate in-feed kXEL line ends line impedance load impedance measured impedance measuring system numerical distance numerical protection numerical relays over-reaching zone overhead line Ph-E Ph-Ph phase faults phasor polarised Power System Protection protection relays quadrilateral reactance refer to paragraph relay location security margin selected short-circuit current short-circuit impedance short-circuit voltage shown in figure single phase single-phase source impedance switching symmetrical components teleprotection three-phase tion transient under-impedance values voltage transformers zone reach