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THE METHODS OF ANALYSIS
ORGANIZATION WITHIN THE ATTACKTHREAT GROUP OF RESPONSES
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10-sec tests 2-min tests actions Animal Behaviour approach attack and escape attack and fleeing attack and threat attack or fleeing attack stimulus attack-evoking stimulus attack-flee conflict beak Bird Black Bird Orange bird table Black-headed Gull blue tit bouts per minute cage causal factors coal tits coefficients components conflict theory correlation Crest crest-raising described display occurs effect elicited erect body escape stimulus evoke experimental experimental control experiments feeding table fixed action patterns fleeing behaviour fleeing stimulus fleeing tendency fluffing flying food deprivation hammering head head-down and horizontal head-up displays Hinde horizontal and wings-out incomplete feeding increase hopping live opponent locomotion maggot marsh tit ments methods neck-stretching negative number of bouts orientation pecking ph.d predictions present preventing attack proportion of head-up relationship responses scarer scores sequence shown significant significantly species Stokes stuffed great tit stuffed opponent suggested tendencies to attack threat displays Tinbergen 1959 total number transverse perches wing-flicking wings