Obsolete Scandinavian Loanwords in English
So far, no comprehensive study of the obsolescence of Scandinavian loanwords in English has ever been published. This book remedies that situation, and presents an analysis of the causes of obsolescence of Scandinavian loanwords in English since the 15th century. The study has mainly been based on the Oxford English Dictionary and the Middle English Dictionary. Over 300 loanwords have been selected, grouped into semantic fields and analysed. To account for their disappearance, reasons such as the rivalry of synonyms, the exclusive use in local dialects, the disappearance of the referent as well as rare occurrence or phonological changes were investigated.
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List of abbreviations
Loanwords before 1500
Loanwords after 1500
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According to Bjorkman Additionally adjective adverb Aertsen's analysed loanword Ancrene Riwle appeared in English became limited became obsolete Beowulf borrowed into English Caxton Chaucer corresponds to OSw Cumberland Cursor Mundi 1300 denoting derived from OE Destruction of Troy dialects of Scotland disappeared displacement Durham Early English alliterative EDD records English alliterative poems English language entered English entered the English Green Knight Hampole hence Lancashire Langland last record comes later Layamon lexeme Li.l limited to dialectal Lincolnshire Middle English native equivalent native synonym native word northern Northumberland Norw noun number of synonyms occurred in English Old English Old Norse Orrmulum Palsgrave 1530 present in English present section Present-Day English Promptorium Parvulorum Promptorium Parvulorum 1440 querte R.Brunne referential field Scandinavian loanwords Scandinavian origin semantic field Shakespeare Sir Gawain suffix suggested texts Towneley Plays Trevisa verb Wars of Alexander Westmoreland William of Palerne written records written sources Wyclif Yorkshire