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CONTRIBUTIONS AND BENEFITS
Some policy implications
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accumulated contributions Actuary age-earnings profiles analysis annual average lifetime appendix appropriate arithmetic mean Average best average earnings average lifetime earnings basic minimum pension basic pension best twenty Britain calculate cent chapter coefficient of variation cohort comparisons considered contracting out margin contributions and benefits Creedy differential contributions differential mortality differential rate discounted net income discussed earnings-related contributions earnings-related pension earnings-related pension scheme Economics examined extent finance flat-rate pension framework given growth higher earners implications implicit rate incentive to contract income taxation increase individual's interest factor involved lifetime income Lognormal Distribution Lorenz curve lower National Insurance contributions National Superannuation necessary obtained partial contracting pension fund pensionable earnings period policy variables private scheme proportional pension rate proportional rate rate of contributions rate of interest rate of return ratio shown in chart Social Security tions total contributions trade-offs two-tier scheme unemployment upper earnings limit upper limit upper tier